A First to Remember

Hello, it’s Lisette, a geology student who’s had the honor to take multiple classes with Dr. Sheffield!

I would like to talk about my summer undergraduate research experience through the Leadership Alliance at the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Brown University. The program itself is called the Summer Research – Early Identification Program, and it was the first REU that I’ve ever applied to, and it really was a summer to remember! By the end of this article, I hope to convey why the Leadership Alliance is an amazing program that professors should encourage undergraduate students, especially those from underrepresented minorities, who have an interest in research to apply!

Scenery around Brown University.

So, what is the program exactly? The SR-EIP serves as an opportunity for undergraduate students to conduct research at an academic institution and receive career mentoring simultaneously in order to curtail the shortage of underrepresented minority groups earning PhDs. During my first week in the program, I attended various seminars that stressed the importance of diversity in STEM as well as coached us on the leadership skills necessary to advance in any field one pursues. We met and learned the stories of some truly amazing women in the STEM field, including Dr. Medeva Ghee, the executive director of the Leadership Alliance. She told us about how she was the first woman to intern at a company she applied for during her undergraduate career and how this spurred her drive to make science a more inclusive discipline for everyone. These workshops would continue throughout my stay at Brown twice a week during group meetings and after weekly dinners. My particular favorite was the one where a group of graduate students and professors at Brown discussed their afflictions of imposter syndrome because it was such a relief to know I wasn’t the only one who felt that way.

On the first day, I met the professor who was going to guide me on my first research experience, Dr. Mustard, as well as the graduate student who was there to support me: Alyssa Pascuzzo. They were monumental during my summer because they offered endless support and encouragement. Dr. Mustard continually checked up on my progress and was always excited to hear about the new skills I had learned. We also had weekly meetings where we would go over scientific articles about the polar caps of Mars and he would teach me more about the world of academia, including how to make the most out of conferences and the various paths one can take to land a career in research.

Presenting at my first research conference.

In tandem, I cannot overstate how important and motivational Alyssa Pascuzzo was throughout the summer and beyond! Every single day she was there with me, guiding me throughout the research process but still allowing me the freedom to choose my own project and how to go about it. She taught me how to use ArcGIS and MATLAB and showed me resources on how to become more proficient at both. I really appreciated how she would take the time to send me even more scientific articles about what I was studying and made sure to go over them afterwards for clarity and understanding. She also served as a grounding friend in a completely new environment and was always there for advice and encouragement. She helped me create my first research poster and stayed late to help me practice my presentation for the Leadership Alliance National Symposium. Even now, longer after summer has passed, she still serves as an exceptional mentor. And I think that’s what makes the Leadership Alliance such a great program for underrepresented students: it truly fosters a sense of community and belonging in those just starting their path in the intimidating yet exciting world of research. You have the opportunity to make so many long-lasting connections with people both inside and outside of your field of interest, and all of the members are open and thrilled to help you make the most of your experience.

If you know any undergraduate student (or are one yourself!) who has expressed interest in research, I sincerely hope you encourage them to apply for the Leadership Alliance. Their program covers a wide range of research areas (including humanities and social sciences through the Leadership Alliance Mellon Initiative) and builds a strong network of mentors that one has for life. We can aid in the diversification of the research workforce together!



Larry Collins, PhD Candidate, Geoscience Education Researcher

Me after collecting pyrite concretions in Oktibbeha County, Mississippi.

What is your favorite part about being a scientist and how did you get interested in science in general? Hi!  My name is Larry Collins and I am a PhD Candidate at Washington State University in Pullman, WA.  As a freshman at Mansfield University, I took Physical Geology with Dr. Chris Kopf and he ignited my true passion for geology.  Dedicating time and energy into instruction was what Dr. Kopf did and this made me even more excited to learn about the processes that affect and shape our earth.  After five years of teaching high school earth science, AP Environmental Science, and Ecology, I wanted to pursue graduate education so that I could share this passion with future educators.   

In laymen’s terms, what do you do?  In my master’s program, I was part of a large project that examined pieces of pyrite that were found within the Demopolis Chalk outside of Starkville, MS.  We were attempting to understand the origin of these pieces of pyrite and what they could also tell us about earth’s early atmosphere. While I enjoyed this project, my true passion was understanding more about how people think and learn about the earth.  These are the exact types of questions that Geoscience Education Researchers (like me) tackle. Specifically, my interests are in the nature of science and assessment. I study how students develop an understanding of the nature of science throughout their undergraduate careers and I develop my own instruments and assessments to accomplish this research goal.  I also study performance-based assessments can be used as tools for learning in order to improve geological literacy. 

Pyrite concretions within the Demopolis Chalk. The chalk outcrops are Late Cretaceous in age.

How does your research/goals/outreach contribute to the understanding of climate change, evolution, paleontology, or to the betterment of society in general?Understanding the nature of science is important for when someone encounters new scientific data or media in the news, on the web, or during a scientific presentation.  The ideas that folks holds about the nature of science are linked to their willingness to accept scientific ideas such as climate change and evolution which have been labeled as controversial.  Understanding how students develop conceptions of the nature of science also ensures that they will understand how new knowledge in science develops and be more accepting of ideas that have been deemed as controversial. 

What are your data and how do you obtain your data? I use interviews, performance-based assessments, and surveys with students in order to collect evidence of their understanding of the nature of science.  I draw on my past instruments such as the VNOS and VASI developed by Lederman, Lederman, Schwartz, and colleagues to also inform my work.   

At the Earth Educators’ Rendezvous, here I am leading a workshop on performance-based assessments.

What advice would you give to young aspiring scientists? As a first generation scientist, I would say that you should always apply for any opportunity that you hear of.  Apply even if you feel like you are not good enough for it because imposter syndrome is a real thing and a lot of us in academia have it!  You never know the great opportunities (such as graduate research opportunities) that can come your way by putting yourself out there. It may be tough, but always reach out to scientists that you respect and admire…a lot of them are friendly and always willing to share their career paths with you!  

A Brief Overview of Findings in the Newly Exposed Day Nunatak Region of Antarctica

Stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology of Upper Cretaceous deposits of Day Nunatak, Snow Hill Island, Antarctica

By Thomas S. Tobin, David Flannery, and Francis J. Sousac

Summarized by Michael de Koter. 

What type of data were used? Newly exposed outcrop on Day Nunatak, a region of sedimentary rock in Snow Hill Island of Antarctica, which was previously inaccessible to the sediments and fossils in the area. Most of these fossils were collected from off the ground, but where possible, they were extracted from in situ (in place). Aerial photography allowed for three-dimensional reconstruction of the area to track glacial ice movement. Hand samples collected in the field underwent petrological and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis to determine composition and characteristics.

Methods: Helicopters were used to access the field site where samples were collected by hand from trenches and outcrops. Structure by motion models were also created using data gathered by helicopters equipped to carry out three dimensional analysis. XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis, petrological analyses via light and electron microscopy, and stable isotope analyses were carried out to learn more about the samples collected from Day Nunatak. 

Results: Overall, the fossils and sediments found and tested in the newly exposed outcrops of Day Nunatak are very similar to samples found in previous studies done on nearby Seymour Island of Antarctica. However, the mode of fossil preservation is variable across these outcrops, with fossils being more prevalent and found in pale concretions in Day Nunatak. For the majority of Snow Hill Island, reddish concretions around fossils are more common, though they occur in a lower frequency. No new species were discovered amongst the fossils in the newly exposed area of Day Nunatak. There was an abundance of Gunnarites collected to represent ammonite fossils from the area. Furthermore, there were no new species of mollusks or other types of fossils identified in the samples collected. Most of the sediments of the Day Nunatak sight are composed of quartz-rich sandy-siltstone that play host to carbonate concretions and well-cemented sandstone.

Satellite imagery taken of the Day Nunatak sight in reference to the larger region of Snow Hill Island. From these pictures, it is clearly seen that the exposed section of rock at Day Nunatak has been steadily growing in area over the last fifty years, with the largest exposed area occurring at the date nearest to the present day.

Why is this study important? The study of newly exposed segments of Antarctician stratigraphy allows for a more comprehensive geological history of the region to be created. Fossils and sediments found in the area- especially those that match other nearby regions of Antarctica- provide a wider range of evidence to link identical beds in different geographical areas together more thoroughly and, in so doing, provide a more comprehensive understanding of the region and its history.

The Big Picture: As more of the glacial ice in Antarctica is melting away as a result of global temperature rise, areas previously inaccessible to geologists for study will become more and more available to study. These changes in the observable regions of the continent will allow for stratigraphically relationships to paint a larger picture of the geologic history of the area. This study is one of the first of such that will be possible as glacial ice continues to recede. Thus far, the data demonstrates regional trends in biostratigraphy that are traceable across much of the larger area surrounding Day Nunatak, which helps to paint a more accurate cross section than was available even ten years ago.

Citation: Tobin, T.S., Flannery, D. and Sousa, F.J., 2018. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology of Upper Cretaceous deposits of Day Nunatak, Snow Hill Island, Antarctica. Cretaceous Research84, pp.407-419.

Western Mass Youth Climate Summit

Shaina here –

All around the world we are seeing youth rising up and getting involved in advocating for a stable climate. They are organizing, striking, building community, and educating themselves on the science and the policy considerations that we need to achieve these goals. In Western Massachusetts there are a variety of youth led organizations, and there are community partnerships supporting them. One of these in the Western Mass Youth Climate Summit (WMYCS) which is co-organized each year by Mass Audubon Arcadia Wildlife Sanctuary and the Hitchcock Center for the Environment. This event brings together teams of students from regional middle and high schools, as well as home school students, for a series of workshops to learn about climate topics and to design action plans for their schools and communities. The action plans are then implemented over the following year. The conference planning is in part led by youth and supported by students from local colleges. To make it accessible there is no cost for attendees,  meals are provided, and each team is given travel stipends. I have been lucky enough to be able to lead workshops at the summit over the past two years and to see these passionate students in action.

Day 1

The first day took place at the Hitchcock Center for the Environment in mid November. The venue itself is an inspirational setting as it is a completely green building with rain water collection that is used to water the native plant species growing on site, composting toilets, a solar roof, and more. This day was filled with workshops and summit attendees could choose whichever interested their team most during any given timeslot. The workshops offered included food for the climate, decreasing food waste, energy efficiency, cooler communities, citizen science, climate games, song writing, and a tour of the living building. There was also a keynote address on youth activism, a live music performance, and an entirely vegan, climate-friendly lunch provided by a local business.

Workshops are encouraged to be interactive and to provide a takeaway that students can reference while considering their action plans during the month leading up to the second day of the summit. My workshop was on Food for the Climate, as requested by the student team who planned what workshops they wanted to see offered. It focused on how agricultural emissions fit into the larger picture of overall emissions, types of greenhouse gases generated and what causes them, how land use change factors in, and more. To save paper my takeaway was posted online as a resource links page with copies of the slides and links to the sources for all images in the slides.

Day 2

The second day took place the next month, in mid December, at Arcadia Wildlife Sanctuary. The students started the day watching a video on the youth climate delegation attending COP25, the UN Climate Summit taking place the same week. They also took workshops on climate communication and sustainable farming. A portion of the day was spent with each student team strategizing about their climate action plan and then presenting the plans to everyone. Many of the team’s presentations focused on common themes relating to the workshop topics. These included things like increasing energy efficiency in their schools, instituting carpool programs, reducing the amount of meat served in the cafeterias, and reducing waste. It will be exciting to see what they are able to accomplish over the next year.

I’m grateful that a program like this exists in my community. It is a great opportunity for students to learn about climate change and create community centered, youth driven action plans to tackle the issues affecting them. I really appreciate that the design of the event is always done with youth input so that the topics they are most interested in are the ones they get to learn about. As we head into an uncertain climate future it is more important than ever that everyone be involved in planning the transition and advocating for their communities, especially the youth who are inheriting a mess then had no part in creating.

Zoliswa (Zoe) Nhleko, Ecologist

What is your favorite part about being a scientist, and how did you get interested in science?

My favorite part about my job is working with amazing wildlife most people don’t get to see on a daily basis or even in their lifetime. And the scenic landscapes I get to work in. My love for wildlife started when I was in primary school and part of an environmental club that met once a week at the local museum. 

What do you do?

I do research on large mammals. Right now it’s specific to white rhinos. I am investigating how rhino poaching is and may continue to affect rhino population dynamics like recruitment, where they are distributed in the landscape and their behavior.

How does your research contribute to the betterment of society and animals in general?

Most rhino populations are at risk of extinction if the poaching goes on unabated. My research hopes to contribute towards means to biologically save the species. There is only so much we can do to stop poaching, but maybe there is much more we can do in our biological management of the species to allow them to grow at maximum rates in order to withstand the poaching onslaught. Lessons from rhinos could be used on other species facing poaching.

What are your data and how do you obtain them?

Some of my data like long term population estimates came from long term monitoring programs like aerial rhino censuses which are done every year in my study site. Data on how poaching affects behavior and physiology came from field work I conducted myself. I ran an experiment using sound playback and camera traps for the behaviour component and collected white rhino poop samples for the physiology question. 

What advice would you give to aspiring scientists?

Science comes in all shapes and sizes, there is space for everyone. Find what you are passionate about and look up people who work in that field and reach out for advice. Some of the projects/jobs I have done have come through reaching out to people in the field that were strangers but soon became valuable connections. 

Drastic variation of cetacean (whale) fossils during the Neogene and Early Quaternary Periods

Stratigraphic Paleobiology of an Evolutionary Radiation: Taphonomy and Facies Distribution of Cetaceans in the last 23 Million Years

Stefano Dominici, Simone Cau and Alessandro Freschi

Summarized by Laura Martins. Laura Martins is a senior geology student at The University of South Florida. She plans to attend a Master program in Geophysics in the spring semester of 2021 out west. She dreams to work in seismological networking. She mostly spends the free days with her son and husband in different adventures such as visiting national parks, springs, Disney, and road trips!

What data were used? The study surveyed over 255 published  papers associated with Neogene (~23-2 million years ago) cetacean (whales, dolphins, porpoises) fossils within a global context (excluding ones found in Southern America, due to a lack of fossil evidence)

Methods: All individual specimens found in the survey were sorted and classified by facies (rock type that represents certain environments) and time intervals (Miocene to Pleistocene Epochs) of deposition. The research also included the number and the preservation quality of bones per skeleton of each example. Even though South American fossils were predicted to have high quality preservation setting due to its hypoxic/anoxic depositional environments, it was set apart because of its lack of even distribution during the Neogene. The study collected a total of 255 specimens with absolute age data and 117 specimens with sedimentary facies data.

Results: The collected data was plotted in two graphs; the first represents the distribution of fossil over time intervals and the second shows the relation between facies (environments) vs time. These illustrations indicate a slight increase of cetacean fossils during the Miocene, followed by a vast increase during the Pliocene. However, by the early Pleistocene, the number of fossils dropped significantly. Consequently, the study conveyed that the highest abundance of cetacean fossils were collected in offshore marine mudstones and sandstones facies, whereas the lowest amount was related to shoreface sandstone facies. It implies that very shallow and very deep waters are not the greatest environments for preservation of these fossils. The study found that offshore mudstone and delta sandstone facies have the highest amount of bones per skeleton, suggesting that these facies are good preservation sites for cetaceans, due to high rates of sedimentation (deltas) and low-pressure settings (offshore) that would minimize decay and scavenging of the organisms. Finally, the research suggests that the remarkable drop off of cetacean fossils in the early Pleistocene might be affected by taphonomy factors (meaning, taphonomy might be making the drop in diversity more severe than it actually was). 

A, Distribution of amount of cetacean’s fossils (%) in a time interval. B, Distribution of amount of cetacean’s fossil (%) over different facies.

Why is this study important? Cetaceans are the largest living marine animals that have ever lived. Through their fossil record, we can understand how their modern and extinct diversity and be explained by variations in taphonomy, taxonomy, loss of habitat, environment, climate and even massive extinction events. The study of this variation on the fossil record allows for the analysis of decay, preservation and environment settings of these large mammals, as well as the relationship of cetaceans with ecosystem changes, enabling the construction of evolutionary pattern trends.

The big picture: The study suggests that the peaks with the highest amount of cetacean fossils during late Miocene and Pliocene are correlated with an optimum climate. The vast drop of fossil localities during the late Pliocene accords with an extinction age. However, it is necessary to highlight that all of the evidence might be affected by taphonomy factors, such as scavengers contributing to loss of tissue and disarticulation.

Citation: Dominici et al. (2018). Stratigraphic paleobiology of an evolutionary radiation: taphonomy and facies distribution of cetaceans in the last 23 million years. Fossilia, Volume 2018: 15-17. https://doi.org/10.32774/FosRep-Pal.20.1810.051517

Participating in Science-A-Thon

Jen & Adriane here – 

This year we participated in Science-A-Thon. Science-A-Thon is a five day celebration of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields and everyone who identifies as a scientist is welcome to participate. Each day you share your science goings-on, including  conducting research, data crunching, or any major discoveries you made. The goal of Science-A-Thon is to show the public what scientists do in any given day, and also what a scientist looks like! Posts from Science-A-Thon are tagged with #DayOfScience so anyone can find them on social media platforms. 

In addition to a global sharing of science, the organization also does a fundraiser to contribute to support women in science. They raised over $14,000 in 2019; check out the fundraiser here: Science-A-Thon 2019. This year, the money went to three major charities: Earth Science Women’s Network, Girls Who Code, and Society of Women Engineers.

Jen’s Experience

I was particularly interested in sharing aspects of my new job as Research Museum Collection Manager at the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology. Many people don’t really know what goes on behind the scenes in museums. Many of us have visited natural history museums but this is only what is on display. The display specimens are usually a very small number (<1%) of the actual holdings of a museum. I work at a research museum, so we share specimens with our public facing museum but my job includes helping to facilitate research. So my visitors are usually scientists wanting to look at very specific specimens. These specimens are very important and are not put on display because their scientific value is more important.

I shared pieces of my day on my Twitter (@paleoJB), Instagram (@jenebauer), and Tumblr (phylojenny.tumblr.com). The whole goal being to bring folks into the collection that is not really as accessible as the public museum. My job can be pretty variable. Some days I spend a lot of time on the computer doing paperwork, entering data into our database, or checking specimens against our database. Other days we get a donation and I am helping organize the new specimens that came in or I am putting away miscellaneous specimens that had been misplaced or were hiding out in my office. 

An example of Jen’s post where she breaks down a task she was doing on one of the days! Sometimes there are fun finds like really old newspaper clippings!

Adriane’s Experience

Like most of the end of 2019, I was working on my dissertation during Science-A-Thon. But I think it’s important to show that sometimes, the path to becoming a doctor isn’t all classes and science experiments. Much of my science journey is sitting alone in front of my computer, trying to write up the results of those experiments and data generating and collecting I did years ago. It’s not glorious, but it’s an essential part of what a scientist does. All of those fancy papers we publish all begin as crappy drafts (well, at least mine begin that way) that require lots of time editing, polishing, and re-writing. 

One of my #DayOfScience Twitter posts for Science-A-Thon written while I was working on a dissertation chapter.

Anyway, I showcased a bit of this writing process (without going into too many details) and some posts about what I do as a scientist during my Science-A-Thon posts. I only posted on Twitter (you can find my posts by searching ‘@ForamWhisperer #DayOfScience’) as this was my first year participating and I was still getting the hang of Instagram. Overall, I think it went well but I will definitely do more posts next year! More than anything, I also enjoyed following along with other scientists’ posts to see what they do in a typical day, and learn more about my friend’s and colleague’s research. So Science-A-Thon isn’t just for the public, but rather a fun annual event that allows me some insight into other scientists’ worlds as well!

Keep an eye out for next year’s event by following Science-A-Thon on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, or checking their website, it will occur annually in October! 

Inclusivity and Sustainability in Conference Food

Shaina here –

The boxes were provided food at a conference that didn’t have ingredient labels so I couldn’t risk eating it.

Many conferences have meals built in for attendees and whether it be daily lunches or a special event dinner organizers need to take inclusivity and sustainability into account when choosing the food. There are several religious, ethical, and medical food needs that are common and taking these into account would be a great place to start if conferences want to provide accessible food.  This article focuses on the types of food served and how accommodations are managed by organizers. There are additional needs around the serving of food that are not addressed here, but links for more information are provided at the end.

A lot of networking opportunities at conferences tend to center around food. Events such as ‘networking lunches’ and ‘happy hours’ are geared toward giving people opportunities to meet others in the field. These events tend to attract a lot of attendees with the promise of food. However there are many people who end up being left out of events like this due to a lack of accessibility in the food options. For many of us it can be yet another time when we don’t feel included or comfortable attending. Often when we don’t show up no one notices we aren’t there, or they don’t know why we didn’t attend. When we do show up we are left awkwardly navigating everyone trying to help us find things we can have (that don’t exist) or feeling hungry while everyone around us is eating. 

The few conferences that do attempt to address this tend to take the path of promising to provide food accommodations if dietary needs are expressed in advance. This is a nice gesture, but in my personal experience it rarely works out in practice. Over the last four years, despite being asked for my dietary needs many times, only one conference ever actually met them. We can do so much better. A better alternative would be to ensure that all food at the conference was as accessible as possible to begin with. In addition to providing food that all attendees will be able to eat it is long past time that conferences center sustainability in the food offerings. 

When accessible food isn’t provided it is a burden on people who need it. 

How much, just in food, I need to pack for a conference even when the difference days they are providing food.
How I need to carry my backpack with my normal stuff and a full separate bag just with the food I need for the day.

Those of us who need food accommodations are often left struggling to find food and missing large portions of the conference in order to go in search of locations we can eat at. At one conference I was asked for my dietary needs in advance but then not provided any food during the daily lunches that were included in my registration fee. The closest restaurant I could eat at was 40 minutes away. I cried from exhaustion and low blood sugar when I found out how far I needed to go to get food after a long day of sessions. I regretted signing up for the conference at all. I also missed all of the evening sessions and networking events. At another conference I could find no food anywhere near the conference. I ended up spending a huge amount of time going back and forth to my hotel room to heat up frozen dinners since they were the only thing I could find at a local grocery store. I can’t stay any place that doesn’t have a fridge and microwave due to all of my dietary needs and an almost total inability to eat out at restaurants. This often costs more money and puts me further from the conference venue.

Talking about how your conference is more accessible because you provide accommodations is performative if those accommodations don’t actually exist.

In my experience I am most likely to be asked in advance for dietary needs at conferences that are small and that have inclusivity and accessibility as stated aims of the conference. In one instance the organizers of a conference I attended were speaking at a second conference I attended. Their talk was about inclusivity and they mentioned in their slides that they provide food accommodations. Except that they had not provided me accommodations when I had attended their conference just a month earlier, despite having asked in advance. I ended up having a low blood sugar event and having to leave the conference during the networking lunch to go buy a bag of chips at a gas station to avoid passing out. It didn’t feel great to see them bragging about their accommodations on Twitter (and getting tons of accolades as well).

In addition students and early career scientists attending conferences are often on an extremely limited budget and already struggling to pay travel and attendance fees. To have to pay for food on top of it- especially if they already had to pay built in conference attendance fees to cover meals that they won’t be able to eat- is a large financial burden.

Sustainability needs to be considered in conference food offerings.

The scientific consensus is clear that plant based diets are one key component in confronting the climate crisis. All food should be plant based and for accessibility all food should be 100% plant based. However plant based diets are not the only consideration. With 30% of all food being wasted food waste must be considered as well. Compost bins should be available and throwing things out should be discouraged. If possible avoid disposable plates and non-compostable containers. When possible food should be sourced locally from independent businesses or food co-ops to minimize emissions from transport and support local businesses.

Demand side mitigation potential from diets. It is from the IPCC SRCCL report.

How can conferences do better?

Strive to make your food as universally accessible as possible.

If you ask for attendees dietary needs you need to actually accommodate them or to reach out in advance to let people know you cannot provide accommodations that meet *all* of their needs. Please try to just provide accessible food from the start to minimize the need for accommodations. Think of it as universal design for food.

Strive to have all food be accessible from the start by having all food served be kosher, halal, vegan, and free of the most common allergens (such as milk, eggs, gluten, tree nuts, peanuts, fish, and shellfish). Having an entirely vegan menu to begin with solves a lot of problems from the start since it already means the food will be accessible to folks who are allergic to eggs, fish, shellfish, dairy, it means many religious dietary needs will already be covered, and it is more climate friendly. Vegetarian food options do not solve nearly as many problems as vegan meals do since they are still inaccessible to people with many of the needs listed.

If you do need to provide food that is likely inaccessible for many attendees and have to go with just trying to provide accommodations then ensure that the food for the accommodations is easy to find and efficiently distributed. It is no fun to wait in long food lines when you know there likely isn’t anything for you at the end of them and that your meal might be stored somewhere else.

Help attendees prepare in advance by being transparent about what will be offered. 

If the conference provides meals have a complete list of what will be offered, including ingredients, available on the website in advance so that people can prepare. It is not sufficient to say ‘lunch provided’. Conferences should already have a page with accessibility information covering topics like closed captioning, wheelchair accessibility, restrooms, etc. Food accessibility information should be included on this page.

Provide ingredient labels on all food provided. 

During food serving times make sure there are clear labels and ingredient lists that people can check for themselves. This makes a huge difference to folks who need it. At one conference I attended they had asked for dietary needs in advance but when the food was served during the networking lunch no one knew the ingredients in any of the pre-packed lunches. There was one that sounded like I could potentially have it from the food title, but without the ingredients someone like me with an autoimmune disorder can’t risk it.

Minimize the greenhouse gas footprint of the food, reduce food waste, and disposable items.

Take steps to minimize the use of disposable containers, eliminate food waste, and ensure sustainability. Track the emissions reductions and waste reductions you are able to make so that you can help other conference organizers make the same changes.

This is not a definitive list.

In addition to the suggestions here regarding type of food served there are other considerations discussed in the links below, such as the configuration of how food is served (please no buffets) and considerations for the serving of alcohol (less alcohol or no alcohol is preferred).

Providing universally accessible food to the most attainable extent possible can go a long way to making attendees at your conference feel more comfortable and included. As we strive to make conferences more accessible for all attendees ensuring that everyone has access to food is one step that I would love to see more conferences take.

Success stories

I can count on one hand the number of times I have been provided with food at conferences, workshops, or seminars over the last 5 years. It is hard to describe how strange it feels to actually be given food. I feel so included when it happens. It is hard for me to understand that most people experience this normally. One time was when I taught at the Western Mass Youth Climate Summit. They had food that was all vegan and several choices (not only did I have food, I had options!!!) for gluten free options. Here is a photo of that lunch. The food was provided by a local business owned and operated by people of color. I used the same business (Pulse Cafe) when I got food for an event I was hosting. I made sure all options were vegan, gluten free, and kosher. The main allergen we needed to warn people of was a peanut sauce that was in separate containers. I had folks come up to me after the event to say it was the first time they had ever attended an event on campus they could eat at. It was one of the only events for me as well, and it only happened because I insisted on it and personally handled all of the coordination around food.
In our department beginning of the semester party food accessibility has been an ongoing issue. I have attended around 10 start of semester parties and despite requesting food accommodations each time I have only been provided with food once and I had to do the order on my own and pick it up myself. The graduate program director has seen my struggle and starting last semester we began collecting info on who in the department needed accommodations. It turned out to be over a dozen people, most of whom had been just quietly not participating in events with food. Providing food everyone can have from the start can go such a long way to making people feel welcome and included. Often when the majority of people are happily eating something like pizza those of us who are left out just go unnoticed and it feels hurtful. There are easy ways we can help change this if we just put in the effort.

Here are some resources for further reading on creating accessible conferences.

Writing a large NSF grant

Andy here –

Writing grants is a big part of doing science. While some science can be done with just a clever idea and data that already exists, it’s more common that we have to go do something. We might need to travel to collect some samples, so we’d need to pay for the train, flights, gas for a car, or even just food. We could need to do some chemistry, which costs money for reagents, time on thousands-or-million-or ten’s of dollar machines, or just beakers! We could also just need to pay our salary while we spend time identifying little tiny fossils, or we could want to pay a student to do it. That last bit is important: Science is a career, and for some folks, they need to bring in grants or they don’t get paid.

How we write grants is not something we talk much about, outside of the occasional (well-earned) whining on social media. It’s a lot of work, and getting them is tough. Here’s a little feeling of what it’s like to write a large grant.

The first thing is to have an idea. Now, not just any idea works. You’ve got to have an idea that: A. you think is exciting, B. others think is exciting, and C. everybody agrees is important. A ‘fishing expedition’, where you might get something neat but you’ve got no clear hypothesis to test, doesn’t work. Even just having a clear hypothesis isn’t enough. You really need to have an idea that has some important impacts for your field and usually society.

I mostly work with science that’s under the purview of the National Science Foundation (NSF) (or in the UK, National Environmental Research Council, NERC). Some of my friends work with grants from US Environmental Protection Agency or the US Department of Energy, or work for the US Geological Survey. What you work on sometimes governs the types of grants for which you can apply, how they are formatted, and the amount of money. To get a grant from the NSF you have to first have an idea that fits one of their ‘Calls for Submission’. My last grant was under the call: EarthCube Science-Enabling Data Capabilities

The most important part of the grant is a 15 page proposal. The proposal lays out the idea. It then supports it with specific language about how we’re going to accomplish that idea, including timelines, deliverables, and back-up plans of what we’re going to do if something doesn’t work. These documents usually need multiple sections, tables of locations, maps, graphs, theoretical diagrams, and a lot of times there’s even unpublished data which supports the hypothesis but just isn’t enough to publish yet. There are also lists of who is going to work on the grant, all of the referenced papers, explanations of how we’re going to coordinate so that we’re getting the maximum amount of science progress out of the money. Usually these things end up being extremely densely written with sub-sub-sub-headings. Ours wasn’t to specifically do science, it was to augment the capabilities in a few systems that existed, so that somebody could come later and do science. Since we’re creating this new thing, I’m hoping that it’s going to be us, since we’ve ostensibly got the jump on everybody, but the goal of open science is to make the data work for all of us. 

The proposal is only the fun part though, planning out how you’re going to do all the science. We also have to prepare a detailed budget that accounts for every dollar we’re asking for, and then a separate document that justifies why we’re spending it. Ours was 5 or so pages. We also had to write a list of all our collaborators for the last 5 years, supply our 5 most relevant papers and then 5 others, where we work, ‘synergistic activities’ (which is a fancy way of saying outreach or community-service type of activities). We had to prepare a 2 page summary of how we’re going to make our data publicly available (this was really easy for us since that’s the whole point of our grant). If there’s more than one person from the same institution proposing this idea, then they all need to list their collaborators, their papers, and so on. Then, if we’re working with another institution, they have to do all of that as well. Each University submits their own budget, justification, all of the co-principal investigators (folks proposing this work) have to list their collaborators, papers, and on.

For our grant, I’m the “Lead Principal Investigator” which means that I’m quote-unquote in-charge. It also means that I’m most liable if this thing fails, which would mean that I’m far less likely to get another grant any time soon (I should point out that I’m only able to be in charge of this because I’m affiliated with the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University in Philadelphia as well as the University of Bristol). The grant primarily includes the University of Wisconsin and Texas A&M University, so they had to do their own budgets, and all of that. There’s also work being done at the a few other universities, a non-profit, and a programming company. Those folks just had contracts they had to draw up, but they were budgeted for on the primary universities budgets. All of those contracts had to be submitted alongside the grant.

Still not done though! We also had to get letters from everybody tangentially involved that was mentioned in the grant. So, we mentioned that we’d invite two other scientists who are experienced in similar things to one of the workshops we’re going to have. We had to have a letter from each of those people, as well as anybody else involved, which meant quite a few others.

Then, once you’re all done with that, the Grants Certification and Authorization office has to approve all of the information you’ve put in, and check your math on the budgeting. Sometimes that office requires weeks of lead time, so not only do you have to do all of the above, you have to do it early! Even more confusing, different institution’s grants offices work completely different, which can get very frustrating if you move around constantly, like many early career academics. Finally, and this part is a little sad, they get to push the button and submit. And then the other primary institutions do that too.

There’s a whole, long, parallel story about how proposals are reviewed and then how they decide on to whom to give money.

All of this is in the hopes that you are one of the one out of five proposals funded. They also usually cut your budget, even if they fund you. If you don’t get funding, you get 3 descriptions about why your ideas wasn’t good enough to fund. All in all, the above is several months worth of work, so it’s basically a high-risk/high-reward process. Even if you do have an amazing idea (like we did!), there’s a low probability of success on the first try (we only succeeded on our second try).

New Species of Bryozoa discovered in Lake Valley Formation

Bryozoan Fauna of the Lake Valley Formation (Mississippian), New Mexico

By: Andrej Ernst, Karl Krainer, Spencer G. Lucas

Summarized by: Johnathan Cook. Johnathan Cook is a fourth-year undergraduate at the University of South Florida. He spent most of his life involved in missionary work overseas in Argentina. After graduating from an Argentine high school, he returned to the United States to receive his Associates Degree from Hillsborough Community College before transferring the University of South Florida. He is set to graduate in December of 2019 and plans to pursue a career in hydrogeology and water management.

What data were used? Bryozoans (aquatic colonial organisms that survived by filtering nutrients from the water they live in) that had been overlooked in previous studies of the Mississippian-age Lake Valley Formation were re-examined by researchers. They also took a fresh look at the environment they were found in to help gain a better understanding of past climate and how the environment has changed through time. Researchers also looked at the type of sediment and the size of the grains to determine the prevalent geologic processes at the time of its deposition.

Methods: The researchers examined the layers (also called members) of the Lake Valley Formation, noting sedimentary structures and characteristics. Bryozoans specimens were made into thin sections and studied through binocular microscopes to determine the genus and species of each specimen found (which is the only accurate way to determine bryozoan taxonomy).

Results: The study of this area found there to be ten species of Bryozoa in the rock record, one of which had been previously overlooked. The studied samples were taken from two members of the formation and indicate changes in the environment. The older layer, named the Andrecito Member, showed deep marine conditions which were quiet and calm, while the younger layer, named the Tierra Blanca Member, showed shallower conditions with higher energy. The characteristics of these two members are good indicators of environmental conditions present during their creation. The deep conditions of the Andrecito member suggest transgression (meaning sea level was high or rising) and the shallow conditions of the Tierra Blanca suggest regression or sea level falling. The species found in these environments demonstrated physical characteristics in support of this hypothesis. Bryozoans in the calmer environment had thinner branches, whereas those in higher energy were thicker.

A main tool used to help determine the genus and species was
measuring the spacing between structures-the zoaria (individual animals in a single colony) in the bryozoan fossil specimens. This was done under the microscope, as these measurements are quite small.

Why is this study important? This study shows further diversification of a fossil type thought to be well understood, as well as the importance of understanding the stratigraphy in combination with fossils to construct a picture of the processes that formed our continent. These specific species are endemic to North America and can give us an idea of the evolution of climate and its effect on North American rocks.

The Big Picture: The discovery of the diverse fossils along with the sedimentary layers provides a reminder that science is not infallible but often misses details that can alter our understanding or hypotheses of past life. How creatures adapt says a lot about the environment they inhabited and with every new data, we can create a clear and more accurate picture of the past. It is important to remember that a hypothesis is not set in stone but can be edited or even disproved as more data are collected.

Citation: Andrej Ernst, Karl Krainer, Spencer G Lucas. Bryozoan Fauna of the Lake Valley Formation (Mississippian), New Mexico. Journal of Paleontology, 92(4), 2018, p. 577–595.