The Bay of Fundy, Part 2

High tide at the Sea Caves in St. Martin, New Brunswick. Far out in the distance are quite large caves, but you can’t see them due to the high tide!

This is the final post in the series of the geology of Maine and the Bay of Fundy. To recap for those of you who might not have read my first post, I documented all the geology I saw recently on a vacation my husband and I took to Maine and New Brunswick, Canada. This is the second post all about the geology of the Bay of Fundy! This one, though, will talk about the famous rocks of the bay and how they got the unusual shapes that made them famous. Remember, the Bay of Fundy is famous because it has the highest tides on Earth.

Scenic photo of an overlook at the Fundy National Parkway

So what do these tides do to the rocks? To answer this, let’s first go to St. Martin, to the famous Sea Caves. You might be looking at this first image and think “what caves!”? Well, this first image is taken at high tide, so the caves are almost entirely underwater. High and low tide were separated by about six hours, so we saw high tide, admired the lovely scenery, and drove to see the Fundy Trail Parkway, a park that you can drive or hike the entire way through for some GORGEOUS scenery. There are spots to pull over and get out, hike short distances, or just look out from a cliff to see some beautiful sites. Here’s a picture overlooking the Bay of Fundy – remember, these lovely coastlines were largely created by the formation, movement, and melting of glaciers.

Low tide at the Sea Caves in St. Martin. This is taken at the same distance from the caves as the image from high tide.

We returned to the Sea Caves to see it at low tide-take a look! This picture is from the SAME spot, give or take a few feet. This photo should show you the height and amount of water moved by tides every day in the Bay of Fundy. The presence of these caves is due to mechanical weathering-literally, the waves associated with the tides coming in and out are quite strong and they break down the rocks. Thousands of years of these waves have created immense caves and crevasses. Once you are able to walk across the seafloor at low tide, you can truly appreciate just how incredibly large these caves are and just how strong the tides are! Here’s an image of me inside one of the caves!

I’m standing at the very back of one of these sea caves!
As we walk across the seafloor, you can see how large these cave systems really are-they’ve been created by thousands of years of strong wave action, something we call mechanical weathering.

There’s one last thing I want to point out about these tides-the effect that they have on living creatures! Snails and barnacles live in high abundance all over the area affected by low tide and these creatures find incredible ways to survive when the low tide means that they aren’t covered by water! Snails will gather in small cracks in rocks where water will pool; barnacles will form more in shadier areas, so the rocks will remain more damp than those exposed to the sun. Sometimes, snails will hang on to a piece of algae just to survive until the water comes back! Check out this image of a snail holding on for dear life!

Snails have methods to survive low tide-this snail is clinging to a piece of algae to survive until the water comes back into the area. This picture makes me think of Jurassic Park and the famous line “Life, uh, finds a way”

Now, let’s travel north to Hopewell Park, where the most famous rocks from the Bay of Fundy are. First, let’s look at the difference between low and high tide. These images are taken just about 4 hours apart. So the rock you see here was broken off from the cliffs due to chemical weathering-water percolating through cracks and breaking them apart. But, the odd shape that you see now, where the rock is much narrower on the bottom-that’s due to mechanical weathering. Wave action over thousands of years has caused these shapes to form. These rocks CAN fall without warning (and have, even recently), so park rangers are always making sure to look for signs of instability.

Low tide at Hopewell Rocks. These rocks are HUGE!

To really experience high tide, my husband and I signed up to kayak through these rocks. To say that the waves here were strong is an understatement! The waves were cresting at just under 4ft-so imagine sitting down on the beach front-you’d be completely covered (if you were curious, kayaking in 4ft waves and high winds was a blast, but also a little terrifying!)! Here’s an up close picture of that same rock you saw in the previous two pictures, from the kayak! Now you can really see where the rock is narrowed at the base-the line between the narrow and wider part of the rock marks the highest the tides can go.

High tide at Hopewell Rocks. Park rangers have to close this off quickly when the tide starts coming back in, to prevent people from being swept in the strong waves.

I hope you’ve enjoyed this series! I think one of the most important things I can say here is that this trip made me rediscover my love of geology. Sometimes, when you work long hours every day as a geologist, it can become a little hard to remember just why you love it. If you’re feeling that way, I encourage you to get out and go explore for a little while- a few hours, or even a few months, if you can!

An image of the rocks from the kayak at high tide. Take a look at how wave action has shaped this rock, from how it narrows at the base and has a large crack in the center.

Freedom Schools Program

Rose here –

A picture of my teammate Katie and I with our Freedom School scholars. I am sitting second from the left in the back row.

This summer I got the chance to hang out with local elementary school students and do cool science experiments. I was one of several volunteers from 500 Women Scientists KnoxPod, an organization dedicated to science outreach and opportunities for fellowship for women scientists, and we partnered with the local Freedom Schools Program, a national summer literacy program for at-risk and minority youth. As part of our partnership, we came up with some fun experiments and demonstrations of various scientific topics to get our students engaged and interested in science.

Our main goals were to show the students that anyone can do science and that the ideas of science affect our daily lives in many ways. Since we had never done this before, it involved a lot of Google searching and trying to find ways to do experiments that were fun and doable for a range of ages and abilities of students. It was helpful that the students we worked with were divided into upper and lower elementary age groups, so we could have some activities involving more reading for the older kids. But both groups were very impressive with their understanding and retention of the ideas, even remembering things we had talked about much earlier in the summer!

One of the most rewarding moments was when one of the girls who had seemed kind of shy and reserved during the earlier sessions came up to me one day and told me that she wants to be a scientist when she grows up! By the end of the summer there were other kids too who would cheer when I walked in, declare that science was their favorite subject, and try to sit as close to me as possible. This made me feel like all the hours spent preparing lessons were totally worth it. I had never done any sort of K-12 classroom presentation before so it was also a really great opportunity to get more practice explaining the concepts of science in an accessible way.

Below are pictures from when we made a pendulum and added paint to make some art and show patterns of pendulum swinging and their causes.

Cam Muskelly, Citizen Scientist and Paleontology/Geology Educator

What is your favorite part about being a scientist and how did you get interested in science in general?

Collecting fossils from Lower Carboniferous (Upper Mississippian) rocks from Huntsville, Alabama

My favorite part about being a citizen scientist is that I get to talk to and meet different people of all ages who want to know what lies in the Earth’s rocks. There were many things that drew me into the fields of paleontology and geology. One of the main reasons was my exposure to a teacher’s fossil collections while I was in the 2nd grade. I knew what fossils were but I had never actually held one at the time. At this time, a 4th grade teacher invited me and a friend (who was also interested in fossils) to her classroom to look at her fossil collection.

She pulled out a drawer and inside were various kinds of fossils. She had fossil specimens such as trilobites, plants, shells, and even a dinosaur coprolite (fossilized feces). She gave me a crinoid stem that she found in the Fort Payne Formation of Tennessee and thus began my journey into paleontology and later geology.

What do you do?
I provide lectures and communicate with the public about paleontology and geology. I have given talks in museums, geological societies, schools, and other events about the various topics in geology. My main focus is in historical geology and deep time geology. I try to communicate with the public about how vast geological time is by using the telltale signatures in the fossils and rocks around you. I have keen interests in early Earth and the remnants of that time as well as Paleozoic and Mesozoic paleontology and geology. I also discuss things such as the fossils that have been found in the state I live in, Georgia.

How do your efforts contribute to the betterment of society in general?
Fossils and rocks are key to the Earth’s long history. In order to understand how we as a species will survive the next few million years on this planet we call home, we have to look into how life and the factors affecting life have evolved through time. As the great geologist Charles Lyell once said, “The present is key to the past.” I constantly have my head buried in scientific literature and read what others have built on and even how it has changed based on new data that has been collected by scientists across the world.

What methods do you use to engage your community/audiences? What have you found to be the best way to communicate science?

Fossils through geologic time table set up for Science/Technology night for Puckett’s Mill Elementary school in Dacula, Georgia

When I communicate to the the public, I always stress the understanding of deep time and the importance of that concept. The concept of deep time isn’t new. It has been known since the days of James Hutton (1726-1797). Deep time is the vast expanse of time locked inside the rock and fossil record. When we think of time we normally think in terms of minutes or seconds. Geologists talk about time in the order of thousands, millions, or even billions of years. It is hard for average person to grasp such an immense scale of time. I try to make this more understable by setting fossils in chronological order to give people a idea on how fossils and environments change through each interval of the geological time scale.

I also use the “Pen Method”. Let’s say I order a new set of ink pens from the store. I open the top of the pen and on it is a small plastic ball to protect in pen from drying out. If you take all of human existence and crunch it up, human existence would fit on the plastic ball of the tip of a new pen. That would be example on how small we are in the vast geologic history of planet Earth.

What advice would you give to young aspiring scientists?
Never ever give on up on what you are passionate about. There is more than one way to become a paleontologist. Let nothing get in your way. Find opportunities around you and take advantage of them. Communicate with scientists and ask questions. Learn how to to read the secrets that are locked in the rocks. Even the smallest secrets can tell you a huge story of a lost world.

New plesiosaur fossils from Antarctica

The first non-aristonectine elasmosaurid (Sauropterygia; Plesiosauria) cranial material from Antarctica: New data on the evolution of the elasmosaurid basicranium and palate

 O’Gorman, J.P., Coria, R.A., Reguero, M., Santillana, S., Mörs, T., Cárdenas, M.

What data were used?

New fossil material from Vega Island in Antarctica

Methods

The fossils were prepared using tools like a jackhammer to remove the fossils from surrounding rock. The fossils were then measured using digital calipers.

Results

Rare fossil material recently found from Vega Island in Antarctica shed light on the evolutionary relationships of extinct reptiles, the plesiosaurs. While a lot of plesiosaur material has been found in the past in Antarctica, this particular field study turned up skull material, which is quite rare! The skull material preserved multiple features that allowed researchers to better understand the evolutionary relationships between different groups of plesiosaurs. Specifically, features of the palate in the skull, has features that link it to other groups of plesiosaurs, the elasmosaurids.

A representative of the specimen uncovered from Vega Island. Shaded in gray are the bones uncovered, including a rare example of a bone from the skull, preserving the palate of the plesiosaur!

Why is this study important?

This study is important for many reasons! First, it described very rarely preserved parts of the body (namely, the skull), which preserves a ton of information about its evolutionary origins. Second, Antarctica remains very unexplored for fossils; it is very expensive and difficult to travel and do field work in this part of the world. This means that with every new fossil find, our knowledge of the past history of Antarctica grows tremendously!

The big picture

New fossils from Antarctica provide new information concerning the biodiversity and evolutionary relationships of plesiosaurs from the Cretaceous. As Antarctica remains fairly unexplored for fossils, any new fossil finds contribute greatly to our knowledge of the history of the continent.

Citation

O’Gorman, J.P., Coria, R.A., Reguero, M., Santillana, S., 2017, The first non-aristonectine elasmosaurid (Sauropterygia; Plesiosauria) cranial material from Antarctica: New data on the evolution of the elasmosaurid basicranium and palate: Cretaceous Research, v. 89, p. 248-263, doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2018.03.013

Geology of the Bay of Fundy

Sarah here –

Map of the Bay of Fundy. The reason why the tides are so high is because the bay gets very narrow, so all of the water going into the bay has to go vertically. Image from Bay of Fundy Tourism.
This post is a continuation of my first post, the geology of Acadia National Park. To recap for those of you who might not have read my first post, I documented all the geology I saw recently on a vacation my husband and I took to Maine and New Brunswick, Canada. This post will be all about the geology of the Bay of Fundy! Specifically, this will be about how glaciers have shaped the geology of the area.

The Bay of Fundy is an incredibly famous geologic area for a good reason-it has the highest tides on Earth, with the highest reaching nearly 56ft! The reason why the tides are so high here has to deal with the shape of the bay-the bay narrows quite a bit (as you can see from the map), so as all the water enters the bay, it’s forced to stack up on top of each other, making the tides reach these incredible heights.

The wave energy at this part of the Bay of Fundy is very high. We can tell because the sediment there is almost entirely very large rocks, as opposed to sand!
Glaciers have shaped a lot of the geology along the Bay of Fundy; as glaciers advance and retreat, they leave telltale signs. One of the best signs are when you see rocks called tillites. These rocks are made of glacial sediment. They’re fairly easy to recognize-often, you’ll see rocks with very large, poorly sorted clasts (meaning, all kinds of different sizes of sediment). These are left behind by glaciers! Here is an example of tillite along the coast of the Bay of Fundy. Look at all of the different sizes of clasts in there! This rock was found at the Irving Nature Center, St. John, New Brunswick. The wave energy in this particular area is very high, which you can tell by the lack of small sand grains and the prevalence of much larger clasts (pebbles-boulders). Another sign of glacial activity is the presence of striations on rocks. Striations are scratches in rocks that are caused by glacial ice moving over them. These glaciers can have lots of rock and sand debris within it, so as they move over rocks, it can cause a lot of surface damage to the rock. Check out this picture of striations on volcanic rocks, also from the Irving Nature Park!

Striations caused from glaciers scraping across a rock surface
Arguably, the most famous area of the Bay of Fundy is the site called Hopewell Rocks. I’ll discuss a lot more about the Hopewell Rocks in my final post, but for now, let’s talk about how glaciers shaped these famous rocks. As glaciers last retreated from these areas (meaning, the Earth warmed and glacial ice melted), the water from the glaciers filled into the ground and caused cracks to form along the coast. This is called chemical weathering. Water is a chemical and it’s the most common chemical that rocks come into contact with when we’re talking about chemical weathering. These cracks eventually caused these large rocks to be separated from the cliff line. This phenomenon might be more familiar to you when you’re driving- when roads (in colder areas, especially) have small cracks in them and water gets into those small cracks, that water can freeze, causing the crack to expand. After multiple rounds of freezing and melting, these cracks become a real problem to drivers!

Glacial melting caused the rocks along parts of the Bay of Fundy to crack (due to chemical weathering) and break off. Here’s a photo of some of these rocks at the famous Hopewell Rock site!
During our next (and final) piece about my trip through the Bay of Fundy, we’ll look at how these famous rocks are shaped by mechanical weathering, instead of chemical!

This rock, called a conglomerate because of the multiple large clasts within it, is indicative of a glacial environment.

Chris Allen, Archaeologist

In laymen’s terms, what do you do?

Chris setting up a total station, an instrument used to survey land and record sub-millimeter accuracy of spatial locations, at an archaeological site located on University of Tennessee property in Knoxville, TN (Summer 2018).
I am an archaeologist, or someone who studies the people of the past. My work focuses on prehistoric and historic populations of North America. The study of archaeology involves the scientific study of the material remains, or the physical things left behind by past human populations. Archaeologists are interested in all aspects of the people of the past from the tools they used to the houses they lived in, their diets and their beliefs, the way they treated their dead, etc. Archaeologists consider the evolution of the human lineage, the effects of the environment has on different cultures, and the influence of human ideas surrounding things like identity, power, and gender on the cultures they study. Using archaeology and the archaeological method is a great way to explore any question that pertains to the past and the people who lived in it.

Archaeology is an important scientific field because for most of the human past it is the only record of who we were, how we lived, and where we came from stored in what we call the archaeological record, or the material remains our ancestors left behind. Even for the more recent human past that has a written history, many aspects of a person’s daily life are never recorded but these can be observed through thorough scientific study.

An archaeological site in the process of archaeological excavation. This photo was taken at an archaeological site located in South Carolina (Summer 2017). The project uncovered a large area and included many more team members than pictured! Archaeology is a true collaborative scientific endeavor.
Archaeologist use a systematic methodology, called excavation, to accurately record information from places where past people performed various activities, called archaeological sites. Archaeologist tend to become specialized in various aspects of the archaeological record from the study of lithic technology (how people used stone tools) to settlement patterns (the way people move and lived on a landscape). My research is focused on two parts; first is the applications of technology in archaeology used to better recognize how information recovered from archaeological sites relates to the interpretations we archaeologists make about past human behavior. Secondly, I am additionally interested in all aspects related to foodways of past people which includes activities, rules, and meanings that surround the production and consumption of food.

Chris and Danielle (a field student) screening dirt through mesh to recover small artifacts. Artifacts will have three stages of identification attached to them. They are; the site number, the unit number, and the level of that unit. This information helps archaeologists reconstruct exactly what happened at an archaeological site when all the materials gets back to the lab.
An archaeological excavation can take on many different forms depending on the environment and questions asked by the researcher. It can be terrestrial or underwater, it can be large-scaled with multiple teams, or just one or two people, it can last years or a few days. Archaeology can and does happen practically anywhere and everywhere.

My current research is focused on pottery from a Historic Cherokee site located in Eastern Tennessee. I am using spatial technology to document how pottery from the site was distributed amongst households to understand how the community formed. Additionally, my research utilizes X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry to analyze the elemental composition of individual ceramic sherds. By studying the elemental variation of pottery, I am able to differentiate between the manufacturing processes used by various Native Peoples and make stronger conclusions about how Cherokee communities organized themselves during this time period. Archaeology is often approached as a scientific form of storytelling. By collecting data from the materials past people left behind we can perhaps tell their story and record it for future generations to learn about our shared human history and experiences.

A ceramic sherd recovered from a 2017 Summer field school in South Carolina. Small details like the pattern on the surface of the sherd help archaeologist determine the age and culture the ceramic belongs to. This ceramic was likely made by someone during the Woodland period (2,500 BCE – 1,000 CE).

What is your favorite part about being a scientist and how did you get interested in science in general?
My favorite part of being a scientist telling stories from the past! Like many people I grew interested in science at a very early age, but the number of scientific fields overwhelmed me. I was undecided about which field I wanted to pursue until I was partway through my undergraduate degree. It was then that I took a few anthropology courses and went on my first archaeological dig. I was hooked and continued taking anthropology courses, changed my major, and I am now working on obtaining a Masters degree in the field of anthropology. Being a student for so long I have discovered that life is much better when you enjoy the work you do. I decided to follow the lesson and make a career out of a scientific field I love.

What advice would you give to young aspiring scientists?
Science has the great potential to take you to new places and explore research areas not yet discovered. This is why I got started in a scientific field, but I have stayed because I found and surrounded myself with wonderful people who support my academic ideas. I would say to aspiring scientists to seek other folks who support their academic goals and interests and talk to scholars (both students and professionals) that are currently in the field! If you are interested in learning more about archaeology I would recommend finding an archaeological field school near you. Most universities with an anthropology program will have a yearly field school!

To learn more about Chris and his work check out his website by clicking here!

Acadia National Park Geology

Sarah here –

My husband, Joe, and I at Acadia National Park!
I recently went on a trip with my husband to Maine, USA and New Brunswick, Canada to see some of the best geology these places had to offer! I’ll be showing you a lot of the gorgeous geology (and some cool biology!) through a series of posts. This first post will be all about my trip to Acadia National Park. My husband and I hiked quite a few trails (about 20 miles of trails total!) in the four days we were there and we learned quite a lot about the geology of the park from our adventures.

Here I am climbing the Beehive Trail, a famous trail in Acadia. It follows a path up and down a mountain composed of granite.
A lot of the rock you’ll see in the popular parts of Acadia- especially the trails in the main part of the park-will be granite. Granite is an igneous rock that formed intrusively, meaning, it formed under the surface of Earth. You can generally tell whether igneous rocks formed intrusively or extrusively (on Earth’s surface), because the sizes of the grains will be different. The magma that makes up granite cools very slowly under the surface of Earth-the slower it cools, the larger the crystals are! But, I digress. Many of the mountains in the Acadian region are made of granite. This granite was formed when two continents- Laurentia (North America) and Avalonia (eastern North America and western Great Britain) slammed together hundreds of millions of years together. When they collided, it forced a huge amount of magma to pool, creating the famous granite we see today (you can read a lot more about the creation of Acadian rocks at this site)! Here’s a photo of me climbing some of this granite on the Beehive Trail! The mountain is very steep and the trails are very narrow, so it is most safely climbed using metal ladders!

View from the summit of Beehive Trail. Gorgeous!
Granite is a very hard, stable rock. What that means is that it doesn’t weather away easily, like other rocks (think of how marble gravestones look like after a few decades-marble is much more easily worn down!) But after millions of years, even the toughest of rocks can start to be broken down! Take a look at these rocks here-you can see the cracks from being weathered (likely by rain!)-these cracks allow rain to penetrate into the rock and break it down even faster! To put it into perspective, think of a windshield-if you put a single crack into it, you’ve weakened the glass and further pressure can result in faster spreading of the break. Rocks respond similarly after the first cracks are formed!

Schoodic Point. This gorgeous part of Acadia is shaped by a dramatic coastline, formed by granite and altered by darker volcanic rock intrusions
I want to show you some of the cool pictures from the other side of Acadia now. This is a lesser known, but just as beautiful part of the park as the most well known part of Acadia. This area is called Schoodic Point. This is also dominated by the same gorgeous granite-but it’s got something else going on that’s really spectacular. If you take a look, you’ll see the gorgeous light colored granite…but also, intrusions of a dark colored igneous rock (called a diabase); this diabase has tiny crystals-meaning, it cooled quickly! We can tell that the dark colored rock intruded into the granite because of the Principle of Cross Cutting Relationships; this geologic principle means that if a rock “cuts across” another rock, the rock that is cutting across is younger (read more about geologic principles here).

An up-close look at just one of the diabase intrusions-some are massive! Some are much smaller.
So, with that in mind, these diabase intrusions are the remnants of later episodes of volcanic activity. There are multiple episodes of volcanic activity represented here-many of the intrusions are cut by even more intrusions! What a beautiful place. So even though this is a post about geology, I wanted to show you a little bit of the life here at Schoodic Point-the wave activity at this area is VERY high (one easy way to see that is that there’s very little sand at this coast-the wave energy is too high, so the sand gets washed away). The water crashes up onto the granite and some water will stay up there, giving a perfect spot for lots of little critters to form a home! Take a look at this small pool of water-how many critters can you see?

Here’s some of the life living on the rocks-the water is washed up from the waves and lots of critters will settle in here. Can you see barnacles, bivalves, snails, tiny crabs, and algae? Anything else?

Stay tuned for more posts on the rest of my trip!

Resources for DACA & Undocumented Students

Maggie here-

I recently had the opportunity to work with high school students and like many high schoolers, everyone was nervously discussing AP (advanced placement) classes that they were taking, when the next ACT or SAT test day was, and of course, what colleges everyone was looking at. For several of those students, thinking about college brought up questions about their immigration status in this country and what resources were available to them to help finance their education. I felt honored that these students felt comfortable enough to ask me for help finding these resources and I wanted to share with others some of the resources that I have found.

FAFSA + State Aid + In-State Tuition:

Map of the states that currently give in-state tuition to undocumented students, in-state tuition + financial aid to undocumented students. From We are the Dream.

FAFSA (Free Application for Student Aid) is the most annoying and painful online form that ultimately results in loans from the Department of Education to help pay for school. If you have DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) status, you are eligible to apply for FAFSA. However, even if you don’t have DACA status and are an undocumented student, you may be eligible to apply for state aid in certain states. In at least six states (California, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, and Washington) you are able to apply for state aid.

In-State tuition varies from state to state, but thankfully there are good graphics and readily available lists of the states that are currently allowing in-state tuition. This can be a big issue for students because if you aren’t getting in-state tuition, often the school then has you pay international tuition, which is significantly more expensive. Like applying for state aid, these in-state tuition states do require residency in those states, and some of those states have an application that needs to be filled out in order to be considered for in-state tuition.

Click here for more information about FAFSA + State Aid + In-State Tuition

Private Scholarships:

Privately funded scholarships are also an option and a quick Google search will bring up more than I have included here. Like with any scholarships though, there are applications (and sometimes other supplemental materials) with strict deadlines, so looking sooner rather than later is to your benefit! Some of these scholarships do require you to go to specific schools or be a resident of specific states, so make sure to look at the fine print and all eligibility requirements before applying!

Scholarships:

Golden Door Scholars
The Dream
Scholarships for DREAMers

Tennessee specific scholarships:
Equal Chance for Education

Other Resources:

Applying to and attending college as an undocumented student can come with a very different set of challenges placed on top of the usual nerves of going away to school. The website My Undocumented Life has blog posts and articles written by other undocumented students about all kinds of life situations that are different or challenging because of immigration status. I will also say that Twitter can be a very valuable resource to anyone looking for scholarships, financial aid, or any questions about college as an undocumented student. If you search hashtags like #undocumented, #DACA, #Dreamers, #UndocuSTEM, or if you tweet asking for help looking for resources using those hashtags, other students who have gone through similar situations already are likely to respond and help you out or provide advice!

From the perspective of a teacher, I will also say that if you have a teacher, guidance counselor, or another person that you trust to share this information with and ask for help, we want to help you. Every person who wants an education deserves access to that education and at least in my case, I will continue to help anyone and everyone who needs help finding a way to make that happen!

Gabriel-Philip Santos, Collections Manager and Outreach Coordinator

What do you do?

What do I do? That’s a fun question. Most people think of paleontologists as scientists who only study dinosaurs, but really there many different ways to be a paleontologist and not all of them have research as their main thing. At the Alf Museum, I wear many hats, so really what I do depends on the day, which is really fun honestly! My main duty is as the collections manager of the Alf Museum. I like to call myself the “Keeper of Bones” because its my job to take care of the 180,000+ fossils in our museum. Sometimes that involves organizing them, repairing broken fossils, sending fossils out to other scientists, or using fossils to create a brand new exhibit.

As the outreach coordinator, my job is to create fun and engaging programs that help our guests learn about natural history. One of my favorite ways to do this is to connect culture with science. For example, for our Making Monsters Discovery Day, I dress up as Professor Oak from the Pokemon franchise to talk about the real-life fossils that inspired fossil Pokemon! This is how Cosplay for Science got started actually! Cosplay for Science is a fun imitative I created with my friends Brittney Stoneburg, Michelle Barboza-Ramirez, and Isaac Magallanes to use cosplay to explain the science behind our favorite fandoms!

Outside of my main duties at the museum, I also like to conduct my own research. I mainly focus on the evolution of marine mammals, particularly the weird, hippo-like desmostylians (imagine something that looks like a hippo, lives on the beach, but is the size of an elephant).

What is your data and how do you obtain it?

A figure from a publication, showing the growth stages of teeth as species of Desmostylus aged.

When I conduct my own research, my data is obtained through looking at the shapes and differences in the bones of desmostylians and other marine mammals. For my first publication, my co-authors and I looked specifically at the teeth of desmostylians. We looked at how the teeth type and shape changed as the animals got older and also at how they wore their teeth through use. From this, we were able to create a way for future paleontologists to tell the general age of a desmostylian based on what teeth they have and how worn they are.

My job as a paleontologist is not much of a data gatherer. I am really more of a data preserver and presenter as a collections manager and outreach coordinator. In the collections, we preserve as much data as we can by protecting fossils from breaking down and by digitizing fossils. We don’t turn fossils into data like Tron, but what we do is we photograph specimens. We create 3D models. We save data like where a specimen was found or who found a fossil in a special computer database. As a science communicator, my job is to take other scientist’s data and make it easier for the general public to understand.

How does your research contribute to climate change, our understanding of evolution, or to the betterment of society in general?

As a collections manager, I get to be part of something bigger. While I may not contribute directly to major discoveries, my job ensures that all the fossils in our collection are preserved for future paleontologists. Within the collection that I take care of, there may be many important discoveries waiting to be described. As an educator, I also get to help inspire a new generation of scientists and help to create a future that is guided by science. We are facing a very grim future because of people out there who disregard science. If I can help to make everyone in our community see the value in science, even if they don’t want to become scientists, that, I think, can help to build a better future where critical thinking is not only valued, but the norm.

What is your favorite part about being a scientist?

So many things! My favorite part of being a scientist is that I have the opportunity to learn something new everyday and then go out and help someone else learn something new! Ever since I was kid, I have loved stories and when you’re a scientist, there a limitless stories out there to discover and retell. Its just amazing and really makes me excited to come into work everyday!

What advice would you give to young scientists?

What I like to tell young scientists or scientists new to their field is to make sure that you love what you do. I’m not saying that you have to go to work or school everyday laughing and smiling, but that overall, you enjoy your work, research, or job. If you aren’t happy with what you are doing, there is nothing wrong with changing your career path. I would also like to tell scientists to be sure to take care of yourself. You should always put yourself first in anything you do. Don’t push yourself to the brink of exhaustion because you think you need to in order to succeed in science. There’s no need for that. I guess to sum it all, you do you and be sure to treat yo’ self every now and then.

To follow Gabe check out his Twitter and Instagram. To learn more about the Raymond M. Alf Museum of Paleontology click here! To learn more about Cosplay for Science check out their website, Twitter, and Instagram!

Something seems fishy here…warm blooded fish?

Whole-body endothermy in a mesopelagic fish, the opah, Lampris guttatus

Wegner, N.C., Snodgrass, O.E., Dewar, H., Hyde, J.R

Lampris guttatus, a fish who is able to produce its own body heat! (Source: fishbase.org). This fish is found worldwide, though it’s especially common in Hawaii and west Africa.

What data were used?
Captured and freely-swimming opah fish

Methods
Researchers measured the body temperatures of captured and freely swimming fish at their natural depth. Temperatures were taken in multiple places along the fish, including the temperatures of a number of the muscles. These measurements were taken by heat monitoring sensors placed in the muscles of the fish.

Results
Researchers found that the core of the fish (pectoral muscles, heart, etc.) were much warmer than the surrounding environment. The cold, oxygenated blood of the fish is warmed by the conducting of heat from the warmer, deoxygenated blood leaving the respiratory system before the oxygenated blood reaches the respiratory system. This indicates that these fish, just like humans and all other mammals, are able to produce their own body heat (“warm blooded”) as opposed to creatures like reptiles, who rely on external sources, like the sun, to maintain their temperature (“cold blooded”).

Why is this study important?

The temperature of an opah fish as taken by the scientists of this study. Measurements were taken ~4-5 cm below the skin of the fish for 98 cm, the length of the fish’s body.

We’ve all learned from school that critters like reptiles and fish are cold blooded, whereas mammals (like us) are warm blooded. Simple, right? It turns out, it’s not nearly as simple as that! More and more, scientists have begun to discover that there are many animals that don’t fit into these neat categories, the opah fish being the most recent of these. This is important because in the fossil record, we don’t have the luxury of examining animals while they’re still alive, so we need to look for other clues! Dinosaurs and pterosaurs are excellent examples of this-we’ve always thought reptiles were cold blooded. But dinosaurs, like Velociraptor, had feathers! They had larger brains! Pterodactyls could fly by flapping their wings! All of these are examples of warm-blooded behavior. Fish like the opah show us how what we thought we knew might not always be the case!

The big picture
The picture that I want to stress here is that even the big things we thought we understood in science-like who’s warm and cold blooded-are subject to change with new data! Only within the last few decades have scientists begun to ditch the idea that animals fall neatly into categories of “warm” and “cold” blooded. It’s also important to note that discoveries such as these open our interpretations of extinct organisms-like dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and yes, even fish!- and how they were able to generate energy. Since we can’t bring a live pterodactyl (at least, not yet! Maybe we’ll learn more after watching Jurassic World: Forgotten Kingdom) in for testing, data such as these remind us that life isn’t as simple as just ‘warm’ and ‘cold’ blooded.

Citation
Wegner, N.C., Snodgrass, O.E., Dewar, H., Hyde, J.R., 2015, Whole-body endothermy in a mesopelagic fish, the opah, Lampris guttatus: Science, v. 348, p. 786-789, DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa8902