We are aiming to provide a comprehensive reference list of the sources used within the Time Scavenger pages. Every time a reference is cited within our pages it will be added to this list. This list includes links to the articles and DOI numbers incorporated into citations. Unfortunately, we know that many of these publications are trapped behind a paywall for our nonacademic users. We apologize in advance.


  • Fay, R.O., 1967. Introduction, p. S298-S300. In R.C. Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part S, Echinodermata 1 (v. 2). The Geological Society of America and University of Kansas, New York and Lawrence. 352 p.

CO2: Past, Present, & Future


  • McFadden, B.J., 2005. Fossil Horses — Evidence for Evolution. Science, 307(5716), p. 1728-1730. DOI: 10.1126/science.1105458
  • Shubin, N., 2008. Your Inner Fish: a Journey into the 3.5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body. New York, Pantheon Books.


Geologic Time

Ocean Chemistry & Acidification

Ocean Layers & Mixing

Ocean Circulation & Stratification

Principles of Geology

  • Boggs, S. Jr., 2012., Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, 5th ed: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Pearson Education, Ltd., 585 p.

Proxy Data

Reading the Tree of Life