We’ve Seen This Before: What The Extinctions in Our Geologic Past Indicate About the Dangers of Current CO2 Emissions

Deep CO2 in the end-Triassic Central Atlantic Magmatic Province

Manfredo Capriolo, Andrea Marzoli, László E. Aradi, Sara Callegaro, Jacopo Dal Corso, Robert K. Newton, Benjamin J. W. Mills, Paul D. Wignall, Omar Bartoli, Don R. Baker, Nasrrddine Youbi, Laurent Remusat, Richard Spiess, and Csaba Szabó

Summarized by Lisette Melendez. 

What data were used? 

This study investigates the large-scale volcanic activity that would eventually lead to the end-Triassic Extinction, one of the top five most devastating extinction events for life on Earth, that occurred about 201 million years ago. The volcanic eruptions took place across the globe, leading to a massive sheet of volcanic rocks known as the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, or CAMP for short. Considering that the volcanic activity took place before the supercontinent Pangea was fully split apart, CAMP rocks can be found in North America, Africa, and Europe, as shown in Figure 1. Scientists used both intrusive (magma that crystallized underground) and extrusive (magma that cooled on the Earth’s surface) rock samples to investigate the amount of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, released into the atmosphere during these catastrophic eruptions.

Methods: By analyzing the concentration of the carbon dioxide bubbles (Figure 2) trapped within the crystals that were formed during the volcanic eruptions, scientists can determine the speed and frequency of the eruptions. After collecting more than 200 samples, the concentration of carbon dioxide within the rocks was determined using microspectroscopy: a method that shows the spectra of the sample in order to identify and quantify the various compounds that are present. 

Results: Overall, there was a high volume of carbon dioxide bubbles within CAMP rocks. Since CO2 is an accelerant for magma eruptions, the volcanic activity was likely hasty and violent. The rapid rise of CO2 in the environment means CO2-removing mechanisms, like weathering, aren’t enough to balance out the excess CO2. This leads to a carbon dioxide buildup in the atmosphere, accelerating global warming and ocean acidification.


Figure 1: A map of the boundaries Central Atlantic Magmatic Province in central Pangea, around 200 million years ago. It shows how wide-spread the volcanic eruptions were during this time.

Why is this study important? The study of CO2 saturation in rocks helps us understand the role that volcanism played in the buildup of excessive greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that triggered the end-Triassic extinction. It showed that the more rapid the release of CO2 into the atmosphere is, the more severe the environmental impact.

The big picture: This study can be used as a warning for current trends, considering that the amount of CO2 emitted during the CAMP eruption roughly equals the amount of projected anthropogenic (i.e., human-caused) emissions over the 21st century. Just like in the past, the current substantial rise in CO2 is leading to a global temperature increase and a surge in ocean acidification, but we are releasing CO2 much faster than at any other time in Earth’s history. Considering that these are the same conditions that led to one of the worst biotic extinctions in Earth’s history, it is vital to encourage our governments to implement radical climate change policies in order to slow the current rise of CO2 to prevent more environmental destruction. 

Figure 2: The black arrows point towards the bubble-bearing inclusions within the rock samples using light optical microscopy. The high concentration of CO2 within these bubbles indicates the magma was rich in CO2. These four samples are specifically orthopyroxene (Opx), clinopyroxene (Cpx), and calcic palgioclase (PI), and were sampled from Canada and Morocco.

Citation: Capriolo, M. et al. Deep CO2 in the end-Triassic Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Nat Commun 11, 1670 (2020).


Mckenna Dyjak, Environmental Scientist & Geologist

Hello! My name is Mckenna Dyjak and I am in my last semester of undergrad at the University of South Florida. I am majoring in environmental science and minoring in geology. I have always been very excited by rocks and minerals as well as plants and animals. In high school, I took AP Environmental Science and realized I couldn’t picture myself doing anything other than natural sciences in college. While in college, I joined the Geology Club and realized that I loved geology as well. At that point it was too late in my college career to double major, so I decided to minor in geology instead. Since then, I have been able to go on many exciting field trips and have met amazing people that have helped further my excitement and education in geology. One of my favorite trips was for my Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry class that went to Mount Rogers in Virginia to observe rock types that would be similar to a core sample we would later study in class. Figure 1 below is a picture of me in Grayson Highlands State Park on that field trip! As you can see, my hiking boots are taped because the soles fell off. Luckily, some of my fellow classmates brought waterproof adhesive tape which saved my life.

Figure 2. University of South Florida Engineering Expo 2020 at EPC booth.

My favorite thing about being a scientist is that everyone has something that they are passionate and knowledgeable about. You can learn so many different things from different people and it is so fun seeing how excited people get about what they are most interested in. It is a great thing to be in a field where constant learning and relearning is the norm. I love to share what I know and learn from others as well. 

 As of now, I am doing an internship with the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County in the Wetlands Division. At the EPC we are in charge of protecting the resources of Hillsborough County, including the wetlands. An important part of what we do is wetland delineation (determination of precise boundaries of wetlands on the ground through field surveys) which requires a wide knowledge of wetland vegetation and hydric soils (soil which is permanently or seasonally saturated by water resulting in anaerobic conditions)! Once the wetland is delineated, permitting and mitigation (compensation for the functional loss resulting from the permitted wetland impact) can begin. Figure 2 below is a picture of me at the Engineering Expo at the University of South Florida explaining the hydrologic cycle to a younger student at the EPC booth!

Figure 3. Vibracore sampling at Whidden Bay, 2019.

Outside of environmental science, I have a passion for geology or more specifically, sedimentary geology. I have been fortunate enough to have amazing professors in my sedimentary classes and have discovered my love for it! I enjoy going on the field trips for the classes and expanding my knowledge in class during lectures. I am interested in using sedimentary rocks to interpret paleoclimate (climate prevalent at a particular time in the geological past)  and determining how past climate change affected surface environments. One really awesome field trip I got to go on was for my Sedimentary Environments class where we took core samples in Whidden Bay and Peace River. In Figure 3 I am in the water, knee deep in smelly mangrove mud, cutting the top of our core that we will eventually pull out and cap. I plan on attending graduate school in Fall of 2021 in this particular area of study.

The study and reconstruction of paleoclimate is important for our understanding of the natural variation of climate and how it is changing presently. To gather paleoclimate data, climate proxies (materials preserved in the geologic record which can be compared to what we know today) are used. I am interested in using paleosols (a stratum or soil horizon that was formed as a soil in a past geological period) as proxy data for determining paleoclimate. Sediment cores (seen in Figure 4) can also be used to determine past climate. The correlation between present day climate change and what has happened in the geologic past is crucial for our push to mitigate climate change.

Figure 4. Core sample from Figure 3.

I urge aspiring scientists to acquire as much knowledge they can about different areas of science because they are all connected! It doesn’t matter if it is from a book at the library, a video online, or in lecture. You also do not have to attend college to be a scientist; any thirst for knowledge and curiosity of the world already has you there.

Understanding growth rings in geoduck clams and their historical environmental significance

North Pacific climate recorded in growth rings of geoduck clams: A new tool for paleoenvironmental reconstruction

Robert C. Francis, Nathan J. Mantua, Edward L. Miles, David L. Peterson

Summarized by Baron Hoffmeister

What data were used? Growth chronology (i.e growth patterns that accumulate over years in the shell of the organism, similar to tree rings) of geoduck clams (see figure 1) collected in Washington, USA were used to reconstruct sea-surface temperatures (SST) in the Strait of Juan de Fuca.  

This is an image of a geoduck. These are known to have life spans lasting over 165 years. From How Stuff Works.

Methods: This study used growth ring data in geoduck clams to determine how sea surface temperatures affected the shell growth (something called “accretion”) within these organisms over their life span. 

Results: Geoduck clams are a part of the class Bivalvia (i.e., a marine or freshwater mollusk that has its soft body compressed by a shell; this includes other organisms like snails and squids). These organisms produce their own shells, and the shells continue to grow as these organisms age (unlike organisms like mammals, who stop growing at a certain age). The shell accretion of these organisms can be observed under a microscope from samples of the shells. These are called growth lines and the spacing in between lines indicates how much new shell material the organism produced during a certain period of time (see figure 2). The growth lines of the geoduck clams found within Strait of Juan de Fuca correlated strongly with sea-surface temperatures. Researchers found that when the water was warmer, more growth was observed. This is common for a number of marine bivalves, and these proxy methods help construct a better understanding of sea surface temperatures from the past. 

The top panel is an SEM micrograph of the ring structure in a 163-year-old geoduck clam. An SEM is a scanning electron microscope that uses a focused beam of electrons that interact with the sample and produce signals that can be used to collect data about the surface composition and surface structures. The bottom panel shows the growth index (solid black line) with local air temperatures (dotted line) from 1896 to 1933. From 1900 to 1910, shell accretion correlated with warmer air temperatures.


Why is this study important? This study helps reconstruct environmental conditions and researchers can use this data in conjunction with other climate proxies to better understand how current climate patterns and ocean temperatures can affect marine ecosystems in the North Pacific basin.

The big picture: This study is important, not only for creating a more cohesive climate proxy database, but also indicating that shell accretion in specific marine organisms can provide important climatic data. Bivalves have a large geographic range and the data collected from these organisms through shell accretion studies can allow us to have a better understanding of historic climate conditions worldwide. 


Francis, R. C., Mantua, N. J., Miles, E. L., & Peterson, D. L. (2004). North Pacific climate recorded in growth rings of geoduck clams: A new tool for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Geophysical Research Letters, 31(6).

Kailey McCain, Interdisciplinary Natural Sciences Undergraduate

Kailey hiking in the Nantahala National Forest in December, 2019.

Hello, my name is Kailey and I’m a Junior at the University of South Florida majoring in interdisciplinary natural sciences, with an emphasis on geology, chemistry, and biology. Most people are surprised by my degree, and I get a lot of questions about the interdisciplinary aspect. As a future scientist, I believe it is critical to have an interdisciplinary approach to solve problems. Sir Francis Bacon, developer of the scientific method, urged not only scientists, but all people, to remove the lens they look at problems through and take into consideration the myriad of perspectives. To me, my degree embodies that. 

Upon graduation I plan on pursuing a PhD in ecology and evolutionary biology and my research interests are centered around dissecting the effects anthropogenic factors, or human activity, have on disease prevalence and transmission. 

What is your favorite aspect about being a scientist?

Graphic explaining the difference between primary (original research) and secondary evidence (syntheses, summaries).

Growing up, I always had an insatiable curiosity about life and our world. That curiosity has ranged from why we have an atmosphere to how human activity has caused harm, not only to our climate, but to all of ecology. I found that studying natural sciences challenges me, but rewards me by answering those questions.

Another aspect of science I love is the community that being in the sciences gives you! As a young woman, it is incredibly motivating to see such a diverse set of individuals working towards one common goal: expanding the knowledge of humankind. Before I immersed myself into the community, it was hard to see myself as a scientist. This was due to a lack of representation of female scientists; however, now I know that I can be whoever I want and I hope to show other young girls that too.

As to how I got interested in science, I originally went into college as planning on pursuing medicine,  but after taking a history of life course through the Geosciences department, my whole trajectory changed. I suddenly found myself so excited for the lecture and I started asking questions that didn’t have concrete answers, and that captivated me. I always wanted to help people and the world, and becoming a research scientist seemed to fit that more so than anything else.

How does your research and education contribute to the understanding of climate change and to the betterment of society?

By studying the ways in which human activity affects wildlife diseases, scientists are able to predict what our future world will look like, attempt to change the trajectory of diseases, and protect some of the world’s most amazing ecosystems. I also think it’s important to expand on this catch all term “human activity”. This can include, but is not limited to, deforestation, climate change, light pollutants, and habitat fragmentation. All of these actions are intertwined in how we look at protecting the world’s ecosystems, while still allowing for human development.

3D scan of Gyrodes abyssinus, which is Late Cretaceous in age (~100-66 million years ago).

What are your data, and how do you obtain them?

I am currently working on a systematic review of all the meta-analyses (I’ll explain what this means below) on Toxoplasma gondii, which is a type of parasite that is predominantly found in cats and humans. The data collected for this study is not found in the field or even the lab, but in other scientific publications, which is why we call it a meta-analysis! My job is to find all studies that are relevant and point out potential positive correlations between the data for other researchers to explore further.

I am also currently interning at a 3D visualization lab scanning paleontological collections (fig. 2)! The purpose of 3D scanning is to digitize collections that can be shared to people all over the world.The softwares utilized are Geomagic Wrap and Zbrush.

What advice do you have for aspiring scientists?

My advice to aspiring scientists is to not give up! As an undergrad, is it incredibly difficult to remove this level of perfection we place on ourselves, but it is necessary. Everyone has messed up, everyone has failed a test, and no one is perfect. Your well being and mental health is more important than any grade. 

Another piece of advice is to always try. There have been countless opportunities that I could have had, but I was too scared of rejection. At the end of the day, rejection is a part of life (especially the academic life).


3D Visualization Undergraduate Internship

Hey everyone! It’s Kailey, an undergraduate student at the sunny University of South Florida.

The image shows a specimen, Gyrodes abyssinus, sitting on a mesh block with a scan via geomagic wrap on the screen in the background.

I wanted to take some time and share with you guys an amazing opportunity I was given earlier this year. As any ambitious college student will tell you, internships are extremely important when it comes to choosing a career path. Not only do they grant students hands-on experience in a particular field, but also general time and knowledge in the workforce. Good internships are hard to come by, which is why I was elated when I got the opportunity to intern at the 3D visualization lab at USF! 

And yes, the lab is as cool as it sounds.

For a place where complex research happens daily, the mission of the lab is rather simple: to harness 3D scanning equipment and data processing softwares. These technological tools have been a wonderful addition to the arts, the humanities, and STEM everywhere, as it has not only supported, but completely transformed, the research in these worlds. This dynamic lab embodies the philosophy of open access research and data sharing, meaning that scientists and researchers from all over the world are able to use its different collections and visit historical sites from the comfort of their homes and offices.

This image shows the Faros arm scanner extended.

My job at the lab was to scan and process some specimens from the department of geosciences’ paleontological collection. The first step in this process is to use a laser scanner and scan my object in various positions (figure 1) using the FaroArm scanner (figure 2). This bad boy has three different joints, making the scanner move around any object seamlessly. The FaroArm also has a probe with a laser, which is essentially taking a bunch of pictures of the object and overlays them. An important note is that these “various positions” need to be easily and manually connected in a software called Geomagic Wrap; therefore, every scan must seamlessly match up like a puzzle! This was probably the most difficult thing to learn, as you not only must think more spatially, but pay close attention to the small, yet distinguable,details, like contour lines and topography (figure 3). In some cases, these small details mean the most to research scientists by showing things like predation scarring and growth lines.

This image shows a close-up shot of the contour lines and topography on the 3D model.

Once the scan is connected and we have a 3D model, the file is switched to a different software called Zbrush. This is where the fun and creative aspects come in! Zbrush allows users to fill in any holes that appear in the scan and clean up any overlapping scan data. This happens when the scans aren’t matched up properly in Geomagic. Next, we paint texture onto the model using different pictures of the fossil. Then, voila, you have a bonafide 3D model (figure 4). The model shown in figure 4 is of Gyrodes abyssinus Morton, a mollusc from the Late Cretaceous. 

I completed a total of three data scans and processes, but was cut short due to the coronavirus pandemic. While my time at the lab was short, I learned so much in terms of technical skills and problem solving. However, the most notable thing I learned was just how interdisciplinary science and research operates at the university level. Networking with archeologists, geologists, anthropologists, and so many more opened my eyes to the different fields contributing to the research world. The experiences I gained at the 3D visualization lab will follow me through my entire academic career.

This is an image of the final 3D model of Gyrodes abyssinus with coloration and texture.

You can visit https://www.usf.edu/arts-sciences/labs/access3d/ for information on the 3D lab and visit https://sketchfab.com/access3d/collections/kailey-mccain-collection to view the rest of my collection.

How Climate Change Impacts the Mortality Rate of Latin American Frogs

An Interaction Between Climate Change and Infectious Disease Drove Widespread Amphibian Declines

by: Jeremy M. Cohen, David J. Civitello, Matthew D. Venesky, Taegan A. McMahon, Jason R. Rohr

Summarized by: Kailey McCain

What data were used? 

This study combined laboratory experiments, field data, and climate records together to support their hypothesis that amphibians have a higher mortality (death) rate when exposed to warmer temperatures, this is known as the “thermal mismatch hypothesis”


Atelopus zeteki or the Panamanian Golden Frog in their natural habitat.

The laboratory experiments consisted of a temperature gradient and a temperature shift experiment. Both experiments exposed an endangered captive frog, Atelopus zeteki or the Panamanian Golden Frog, to a disease causing fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and measured the rate of death. The temperature gradient gradient slowly increased the temperature, while the temperature shift experiment exposed the frog to the fungus at specific temperature units: 14°C, 17°C, 23°C, or 26°C.  

The data was then compared to field data collected from the International Union for Conservation of Nature red list database to observe a real time decline in a total of 66 species of frog. The geographical range for the field data was limited to Latin America and the rate of decline was compared to historic monthly climate data.


The results of the temperature gradient and temperature shift experiments show that mortality increased when the infected frog was exposed to higher temperatures. However, it also shows that temperature did not affect the mortality rate of the control group, the non infected frogs. As for the field data collected, the results showed that the frogs’ decline could not be correlated to precipitation nor altitude, but climate change, the thermal mismatch hypothesis clearly  predicted an increased decline of the species.

Figure A represents the data collected for the temperature gradient experiment and shows a linear decline in survival time with an increase in temperature. Figure B represents the data collected for the temperature shift experiment and shows the different temperature units plotted by the proportion alive versus time. The graph indicates that the warmest temperature has the lowest survival rate.

Why is this study important? 

This study tackles two of the largest challenges facing the modern world: climate change and disease prevalence. Some believe these issues are falsely linked, but the evidence collected in this study shows a positive correlation between disease induced death and increased temperature, both in a laboratory environment and the outside world. 

The big picture: 

While this study was isolated in geographical terms, the data collected gives researchers a look into what the future might hold for the spread of diseases in a warming world. Alone, the rising temperatures were not found to increase the rate of mortality; however, when mixed with a pathogen, a deadly combination was created and increased the rate of mortality greatly.

Citation: full citation of paper 

Cohen, J. M., Civitello, D. J., Venesky, M. D., McMahon, T. A., & Rohr, J. R. (2019). An interaction between climate change and infectious disease drove widespread amphibian declines. Global Change Biology, 3, 927. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.usf.edu/10.1111/gcb.14489

Baron Hoffmeister, Environmental Scientist & Geologist

Baron in the Calhan Paint Mines in Calhan, CO.

Hey there! My name is Baron Hoffmeister and I am a graduating senior at the University of South Florida. I am pursuing a Bachelor’s degree in  Environmental science with a minor in geology. I have always been drawn to the outdoors, and extremely curious about nature and how things work. When I decided to attend college I knew that I wanted to study something related to science. I decided to pursue environmental science as I became extremely interested in climate change and resource management.  In my junior semester at USF, I went on my first geology field trip to Fort de Soto Park in St. Petersburg, Florida. This was for USF’s Sedimentary Environments course and the goal of the trip was to study common sedimentary structures associated with barrier island formations. On this field-trip, we explored the barrier islands that make up Fort de Soto park and in several locations took pound core samples and dug trenches. In figure 1 you can observe some of the pound core samples taken from various parts of Fort De Soto Park. This is one of many useful methods that sedimentologists use to understand depositional history within a small region. This hands-on field experience left an impact on me and I immediately fell in love with geology. I was so far along in my environmental science program that it didn’t make sense to switch majors, so I chose to pick up a minor in geology instead. Fortunately, the majority of the geology courses I have taken all allowed me to take trips and participate in fieldwork relating to the courses. Most importantly, each of my professors expresses such a profound passion for geology that it is infectious and this has been instrumental in my admiration for geology. 

Pound core samples from Fort De Soto Park in St. Petersburg, FL.

My favorite part about being a scientist is that it allows me to spend time outdoors learning about the environment and the process that takes place that shapes the world we live in. This has always driven my passion for science and has carried over into my personal life. Any opportunity that I can find to go and explore nature I jump at. Figure 2 is a photo from my last trip to Colorado where I had the chance to explore the Calhan Paint Mines and study the large clay deposits in this region. It was very cold and windy that day. I believe with the windchill the temperature that day was in single digits. There was also a brief snow shower that rolled through and covered the entire park in a fresh layer of snow while we were there. After living in Florida for the past five years it was nice to finally see some snow again! 

Currently, I am interning for a contract management group before I apply to graduate school for sedimentary geology to start in the Fall of 2021.  I am interested in studying sedimentary geology and its relation to paleoclimate. Specifically, I am interested in how past climates have affected the rates of sedimentation and carbon cycling. I want to use this information to understand how current climate change patterns affect carbon cycling and sedimentation throughout the world. Science communication is critical for sharing ideas, research, and for education, but it is also crucial for being a great scientist. That’s why I have decided to write for Time Scavengers. I am excited about this learning process and the opportunity to educate others about geology, and understanding climate change!

I would tell any aspiring scientist to work hard and pursue an education, even if it is through your own efforts and experience.

Geology of the Mount Rogers Formation and Virginia Creeper Trail

Mckenna here- This post will show you the geology of the Mount Rogers Formation and Virginia Creeper Trail on a recent field trip I took to Virginia!

Day 1

Image 1. Our professor leading us to a geology lookout point on the way to Abingdon to see an outcrop (visible rock formation).

On October 10th of 2019, my Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry class went on a 4 day field trip to Abingdon, Virginia. Imagine this: it’s October. You love fall but you’ve lived in Florida your whole life, and you finally get to wear all the winter clothes you bought for no apparent reason. Considering these facts, my excitement for the trip was through the roof. After a 14 hour ride in a van with 10 other people and frequent restroom stops (much to the dismay of my professor) we finally arrived in Abingdon, Virginia to the joys of leaves turning colors and a crisp feeling in the air. A van full of (mostly) Florida-born students  seeing fall leaves for what was probably the first time was a van full of amazement and pure excitement. It sounds silly, but it was really wholesome seeing how giddy everyone got just by seeing some colorful trees (me included). We got to our hotel and prepared for the next day spent in the field. 

Day 2

Image 2. Rhyolite at Mt. Rogers with visible high silica flow banding (lava flow)

We woke up early in the morning and were able to enjoy a delightful breakfast made by the hotel to kick start our day. I packed my lunch and snacks and put on layers of clothes to be ready for any weather. I put on my new wool socks from the outlet store and old hiking boots that seemed structurally sound at the time (important to note for later). On our way to Mount Rogers in Damascus, Virginia we happened to take a road conveniently coined “The Twist”. As a long term participant in unwillingly becoming motion sick in situations such as going down one of the curviest roads in Virginia, I wasn’t thrilled. Luckily, I knew mountain roads could be bad so I packed some Dramamine which I made sure I took every time we got in the van from then on. 

Once we got to Mount Rogers my friend and I immediately had to use the bathroom which in this case, was wherever you felt like the trees concealed you enough. They don’t really mention this too much for field trips/field camps but bring toilet paper!! It will make your life a lot easier. After this venture, we were soon on the hunt for rhyolite. Rhyolite is a type of rock that my professor has talked a lot about and I had heard from other students that it is mostly what you will be seeing on the Virginia trip. It is a type of igneous rock that has a very high silica content so it is considered felsic (which is usually light colored). Rhyolite is made up of the minerals quartz, and plagioclase with smaller amounts of hornblende and biotite

The upper part of the Mount Rogers Formation consists mostly of rhyolite which we have, thanks to the continental rifting that occurred around 750 mya. The volcanoes that were once present here erupted and the igneous rock formed from the lava flow. 

Figure 1. Formation of rift valley in Mt. Rogers (From Radford)

We used our rock hammers that you can see in Image 2 to break off bits of Rhyolite and observe them under our handheld lenses. Through these lenses, we could (almost) easily identify the minerals present in our rock samples. 

Stop after stop, we observed more rhyolite. It became quite easy to answer our professor’s questions as to what type of rock we were looking at; the answer was usually “Whitetop Rhyolite”. There were, however, different types of rocks as we descended down the side of the mountain: buzzard rock and cranberry gneiss.

Image 3. Buzzard rock
Image 4. Cranberry gneiss









After we were finished at our first destination, we drove off to Grayson Highlands State Park. Here we observed more outcrops of rhyolite with a new fun bonus: tiny horses. Apparently, these tiny horses were let loose here in the late 20th century to control the growth of brush in the park. Now, there are around 150 of them that live in the park and are considered wild. While the park discourages petting the horse, you are able to get a cool selfie with them!

Image 5. Selfie with tiny horse in Grayson Highlands State Park

At the state park , there were lots and lots of giant rocks to climb on which everyone seemed to enjoy doing. So, while climbing the rocks, we were also observing and identifying them so it was a great combination. I was taking the liberty to climb almost every rock I saw and everything was going great for the time being. At one rock, I decided I wanted some pictures, for the memories! Mid mini photo shoot, I realized that the sole of my hiking boot had come clean off. Luckily, TWO very prepared people in my class happened to have waterproof adhesive tape and offered for me to use it to fix my boots. I was so thankful (and impressed that they had it in the first place) for the tape and used it to wrap my sole back to my boot and reinforce my second one because I noticed that the sole was starting to come off. The taped boots almost got me through to the end of the second day but I had to do some careful, soleless walking to get back to the van. I was able to go to the store near our hotel to get some replacement boots for the third, and final day in the field. 

Image 6. Realization of broken boot
Image 7. The final product of taped boots

Day 3

Image 8. Shale sample taken from outcrop along the Virginia Creeper Trail

The last day in the field was spent at the Virginia Creeper Trail in Damascus, Virginia. This specific trail serves almost entirely as a 34 mile cycling trail; by almost entirely, I mean entirely a cycling trail with the exception of a class full of geology students. Our day consisted of identifying rock types in outcrops along the trail and receiving a wide range of looks from cyclists passing by as our lookouts at the front and back yelled out for us to get out of the way. We walked around 1.5 miles of the trail, all while taking notes and pictures while our professor and teaching assistants were explaining each outcrop. Once we reached a certain point, our professor informed us that they would be leaving to get the vans and we would be walking back the way we came plus a half mile or so and identifying each outcrop while counting our steps and noting our bearings. So we measured our strides and got into groups to commence the journey. The goal of this was to eventually be able to create a map of our own that indicated each outcrop type and where they were on the path we took. 

Image 9. Mudstone displaying “varves”, which are a seasonal bedding pattern that develops in high latitude lakes. The thicker deposits develop in the summer and the thinner ones develop in the winter (please ignore my nailpolish-it is not a good idea to paint your nails before a geology trip).

This all sounds relatively simple, right? The answer is well, not really. The entire venture took around 4 or 5 hours and honestly made some people a little grumpy. I was happy though, because among the rhyolites and basalts, we were also able to see some really cool sedimentary rocks. Along the way we saw some awesome shale (Image 8) which we were told had some fossils in it if you looked hard enough. Of course, being interested in sedimentary geology I would’ve stayed forever chipping away at the shale to find a fossil but we were quickly ushered along by one of our professors. Shale is a type of sedimentary rock that is formed from packed silt or clay and easily separates into sheets. This type of rock is formed under gentle pressure and heat which allows organic material to be preserved easier as opposed to igneous or metamorphic rocks. As we continued along the trail we also saw mudstones and sandstones, diamictites, and conglomerates. After reaching the end of our journey, my group might have gone a little overboard and recorded 51 different outcrops. The outcrops we recorded could be reduced to: basalt, rhyolite, diamictite, conglomerate, sandstone/mudstone, and shale. The last field day was now concluded with tired feet but happy hearts as we listened to Fleetwood Mac in the van on the way back to the hotel.

Image 10. Diamictite (type of conglomerate) with poorly sorted grains suspended in a clay matrix. This specific rock was likely created by glacial activity and/or volcanic activity.

Day 4

We had a very early morning, skipped the hotel breakfast (they put out fruit and pastries for us though), and piled into the vans for a long journey back to Tampa, Florida. This trip was everything I had hoped it would be and made me fall in love with geology even more than I already was! I hope to go on many more adventures like this in the future. 

Bonus images of cool finds:

Image 11. Swallowtail feldspar (basalt) contains epidote and quartz. Lava cooled very quickly which caused rapid crystallization
Image 12. Rhyolite with pyrite (fool’s gold) clasts visible under hand lens

Science Communication at The University of South Florida

Sarah here –

If you’ve been following Time Scavengers, you may have seen the paleo news posts that my students have written, which have been great! This post is a summary post about what I learned and what my students learned throughout the course of this project. I teach an upper- level class for geoscience majors at The University of South Florida called paleontology and stratigraphy. When I was designing what the course would look like, I tried to think about the skills I most wanted my students to have upon leaving. As most of my students in my classes won’t become paleontologists— they’ll go into a wide variety of science jobs— I wanted to find skills that will help them, no matter where they go. A lot of the things I want them to learn are already skills emphasized in a lot of college classes, including the ones I teach— critical thinking, evidence- based arguments, hypothesis testing, and other things. But one thing that I value a lot in science is the ability to communicate clearly with anyone, not just scientists. 

The talks, seminars, and papers that I see and read and resonate with most are those that are easily accessible. It’s hard to get engaged and get excited about a topic (even something in my field!) if I have to continuously stop and think about what the person might be trying to say— I think most people would probably feel the same. I wanted my students to practice explaining scientific concepts in a way that anyone who wanted to read it would understand, so that when they wrote papers, presented research talks, talked to future clients, or even chatted with people about their science in cabs or at family gatherings, they could remember how to break down complicated concepts in an effective way without removing the main points of the science. 

Example of the graphics made to showcase the USF Paleo/Strat student work. These were shared on the Time Scavengers social media channels.

Students chose a recently published paper of their own interest and wrote a draft of their summary. Then, they had a chance to learn a bit more about the peer review process scientists go through (check out more on how peer review and publishing works here) by trading drafts with a partner and reviewing their work for clarity, accuracy, and grammar. I made final suggestions as the editor. Finally, the posts were published on this site! You can read all of my excellent students’ work here: USF Paleo/Strat

Students really seemed to enjoy this project, so much so that I had an idea for this spring and summer: to get students involved in a long term project to develop their scientific communication skills. Over the next few months, you’ll start seeing posts from my students who are writing a series of blogs and paper summaries as they work to develop their scientific communication skills. If you haven’t yet had a chance to meet Kailey, Lisette, Baron, or Mckenna, check out their bios now! 

Lisette Melendez, Geology and Astronomy Undergraduate Student

Standing outside of NASA Ames, where Lisette worked in aiding the lunar landing mission!

What is your favorite part of being a scientist?

Ever since I was very young, I’ve always had a fascination with geology. In elementary school, I would tout around my battered copy of the Smithsonian handbook on rocks and minerals and take notes in my “research journal”. Rocks littered every available surface of my room, and my ears always perked up when we finally reached the Earth Science section of our science classes. What’s cooler than learning about Earth’s layers and how volcanoes form? During field trips, I would sometimes get separated from the group, too mesmerized by rocks that I found on the ground. Even with all these signs, it wasn’t until the end of my first year in university that I realized that I could become a geologist and work with rocks for a career. 

I started off in a field that I was pressured into but that I had no passion for. How could I miss geology as a career option? For many years prior, every geologist that I encountered in my textbooks were white men. While I was working on one of my assignments, I looked over to see what my friend was working on. The assignment was to use Steno’s Laws of Stratigraphy to determine what order the rock layers were deposited. I thought the assignment was fascinating while my friend looked at me with a strange face. They told me about their professor, Dr. Sheffield, and how passionate she was for geology and all the amazing fieldwork she’s done throughout her career. This was a mindblowing moment for me: it was the first time I learned about a female geologist. That same day, I went to the student affairs office and changed my major to Geology. 

From that day forward, I got to experience first hand what a difference doing what you love made in one’s life. My favorite part of being a scientist is simply that there’s always more to learn. Every single day, I wake up incredibly excited to go to class and learn about minerals, volcanoes, and paleobiology. I still remember being in my old major looking wistfully at the Mineralogy class on the USF course inventory. I’m forever grateful that now, that’s what I study all the time! I look over my room and now there are textbooks on planetary volcanism, astrobiology, and sedimentology that join the rocks scattered on various surfaces. Sometimes, I feel like I never really changed from that child who loved rocks: now, I’m just working to be able to collect rocks for the rest of my life.

What do you do?

Right now, I’m studying geology and astronomy at the University of South Florida. My future goals are to get accepted into a PhD program for planetary science, and then hopefully work on the research team that analyzes samples from the surface of Mars and become a curator at a natural history museum! 

Most of the research I do works towards uncovering the geologic past of celestial objects. It’s the perfect overlap between my two favorite subjects: geology and astronomy! Last summer, I conducted research about Martian ice caps at Brown University through the Leadership Alliance – an awesome program aimed at increasing diversity in STEM (read my Time Scavengers post about it here!). I also interned at NASA, where I helped write the code of a navigation program that would assist scientists locate ideal landing areas on the Moon. This upcoming summer, I’m really excited to be working with the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History on analyzing meteoritic samples collected by NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission. The samples collected contain information on the earliest history of our solar system! I’m using my time in undergraduate studies to get a clearer idea of what branch of planetary science I’d like to delve into in graduate school.

Volunteering as a mentor for NCAS (NASA’s Community College Aerospace Scholars).

How does your research contribute to the understanding of climate change and the betterment of society in general?

I believe research in the planetary sciences helps humanity as a whole by illuminating our role in the universe. By addressing the questions of the universe,  the answers to our day to day problems become clearer through perspective. It’s easier to plot out humanity’s destiny and how to build a better society for everyone by figuring out where we came from and how the universe around us is changing. This is particularly important when considering the future of humans in space. Being able to find geologic analogs of celestial terrain (like the Martian surface) on Earth will help us decide which crops and structures work best for the Martian environment. As we continue exploring the universe, it’s important to keep in mind universal codes of safety, planetary preservation, and anti-imperialism in order to avoid harming the new environments we enter.

What methods do you use to engage your audience and community? What have you found to be the best way to communicate science?

One of the first pieces of advice that one of my mentors, Dr. Mustard, bestowed onto me was that “science is never done in a vacuum”. Collecting scientific data is an incredibly exciting part of research, but it’s also essential to communicate your findings with others to increase scientific literacy and humanity’s pool of knowledge. Science is all about sharing what you’ve learned and what you’ve experienced. It is much more rewarding involving different perspectives and helping everyone feel included. Through my officer positions at two clubs at USF, the Geology Club and the Contemporary Art Museum Club, I promote the importance of STEAM and interdisciplinary research. I believe one of the keys to successful science communication is to express why one’s excited about the topic and to make it relatable to what others are interested in. I’m really excited to join Time Scavengers as a science communications intern in order to hone in on this essential skill and become a better scientist overall.

Standing at the base of the 40 foot radio telescope at Green Bank Observatory!

What advice do you have for aspiring scientists?

My advice would be to just take a moment and think about what you really want from life. I’ve spent countless years just trying to follow what others expected me to do that I never really thought about what I wanted to be. Following the path others decide for you is no way to live your life. You’re the one who will have to live out your career path, so choose one you’re passionate in! There’s definitely space for you! There is such a wide range of fields, from studying bugs to glaciers, you deserve to make your mark the way that you want to.

Finding where you belong is essential to unlocking the zeal that will pull you through obstacles and challenges. Prior to joining the geology department, I was a very shy and reserved person. However, my passion for geology and astronomy (and the endless kindness from geologists) gave me the courage to overcome my anxieties and become resilient in the face of adversity. I transformed from a quiet and socially anxious person into the president of my university’s Geology Club and founder of USF’s Society of Women in Space Exploration Chapter. Openly doing what you love will also surround you with like-minded individuals that are the key to building a good support group! My favorite part about becoming a geologist would definitely be being able to network and meet others who are just as passionate about rocks as I am. It’s exhilarating, being friends with geologists and gathering around in the parking lot of a Waffle House to examine an outcrop. The feeling of togetherness is unmatched.