Climate Change and Encephalitis

The potential impact of climate change on the transmission risk of tick-borne encephalitis in Hungary

Kyeongah Nah, Ákos Bede-Fazekas, Attila János Trájer, and Jianhong Wu

Summarized by Kailey McCain

What data were used? The data collected for this study includes the monthly average temperature values in Hungary from the years 1961-1990. Specifically, for the past climate data,researchers used the CarpatClim-Hu database. For future climate predictions, the researchers used two distinct climate models: ALADIN-Climate 4.5 and RegCM 3.1. Additionally, previously established models for Tick-borne Encephalitis virus (i.e., a human viral infectious disease) transmission was used. Models help us hypothesize how different scenarios will look, by allowing us to input a lot of different types of data to understand large future patterns, like the one in this article! 

Methodology: By using the previous climate data for the years 1961-1990, the researchers established a predictive warming model for the years 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 in Hungary. This data was then compared to the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) transmission model to establish correlations between the data sets. This model broke down the transmission into various factors: reproduction numbers, duration of infestation, and density. The dynamics of transmission can be visualized in figure 1.

Figure 1: This figure shows an extensive diagram of how an infected tick spreads the disease to humans, livestock, and other animals. The inner circle represents the stages from larva, to nymph, to mature tick; then it branches to external transmission.

Results: The predictive climate model showed a steady increase in temperature for the age ranges 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, and the TBEV model resulted in an increase in tick population and transmission. These increases can be positively correlated (linked) to warming climate because previous data shows that a higher temperature speeds up the rate of sexual maturity in ticks; meaning, this allows the tick to reproduce at an increased rate. Moreover, research has shown that a warming climate leads to the elongation of tick questing season; which increases the chance for transmission. When a tick is questing (shown in figure 2), it is strategically placed on vegetation in order to grab a hold of by passers. 

Figure 2: This image represents a questing tick sitting on the edge of a lead with their legs spread out, and ready for attachment.

Why is this study important? This study is important because it shows the dynamic effects climate change has on global health. It also conveys an important message that the prevention of climate change is not only a biological and geological problem, but a public health problem, too. This means that solutions for reducing the impacts of climate change have to be creative and have to be from a lot of different types of researchers! 

The big picture: This study helps us understand the ways in which infectious diseases, (e.g., Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus) are affected by climate change. As well as giving a glimpse into the future of what disease transmission will look like if prevention protocols are not put in place.

Citation: Kyeongah Nah, Ákos Bede-Fazekas, Attila János Trájer, & Jianhong Wu. (2020). The potential impact of climate change on the transmission risk of tick-borne encephalitis in Hungary. BMC Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4734-4

How Climate Change in Serbia is Impacting the Rate of Cancer and Infectious Diseases

Assessment of climate change impact on the malaria vector Anopheles hyrcanus, West Nile disease, and incidence of melanoma in the Vojvodina Province (Serbia) using data from a regional climate model 

By: Dragutin T. Mihailović, Dusan Petrić, Tamas Petrović, Ivana Hrnjaković- Cvjetković, Vladimir Djurdjevic, Emilija Nikolić-Đoric, Ilija Arsenić, Mina PetrićID, Gordan Mimić, Aleksandra Ignjatović-Cupina 

Summarized by: Kailey McCain

What data were used? Researchers assessed climate change and UV radiation (UVR) and compared it to data collected over ten years from mosquito field collections at over 166 sites across Serbia. Additionally, public health records for the circulation of vector-borne disease (I.e., illnesses spread by mosquitoes and ticks), specifically the West Nile Virus, and the incidence of melanoma (i.e., a serious form of skin cancer) were collected and compared.

Methods: The climate change and UVR doses were collected by using EBU-POM model (a type of regional climate model) for the time periods: 1961-2000 and 2001-2030. As for the collection of the mosquito data, two different dry-ice baited traps (dry-ice is a solid form of carbon dioxide, which is a natural attractive substance for mosquitos) were used. The various sites were chosen by entomologists (i.e., scientists who study insects) to obtain a diverse data set. The mosquitoes collected were then anesthetised, separated by location, species, sex, and then tested for a specific RNA (I.e., a single stranded molecule) strand that would indicate the mosquito was carrying the West Nile Virus.

Furthermore, the researchers measured the rate of melanoma incidences in Serbia by using two different indicators: new number of cases versus time and number of new cases versus population size. The defined time period for data collection was 10 years (1995-2004). With this data, the researchers compared the rate of incidence to the climate data previously collected.

Fig 1: This diagram shows the linear trend in annual temperature fluctuations throughout Serbia from the time period 1990-2030; as well as depicts the mosquito prevalence found at the various collection sites.

Results: From the data collected via the regional climate model, a linear upwards trend in temperature in Serbia was recorded. The prevalence of mosquitoes was also found to increase linearly throughout the time period. The culmination of these results can be seen in figure 1.

As for the melanoma data, the researchers found a linear increase in UVR doses for the time period. This data was found to be correlated to an increase in melanoma incidences throughout Serbia and this data can be visualized in figure 2.

Why is this study important? Disease prevalence and distribution have always been difficult to predict due to the varying ecological factors that play important roles. Research like this is especially important because it allows scientists to simulate future spreads of vector-borne diseases within European countries. This can eventually lead to the development of public health surveillance technology and overall prevention.

Fig 2: Diagram (a) depicts the increased temperature rates throughout Serbia, and diagram (b) depicts the UV radiation doses on the various provinces throughout Serbia. Diagram (c) shows the linear relationship of UV doses versus the time period 1990-2030. The data shows a clear increase in “hot days” (HD) and “warm days” (WD) through time. Diagram (d) shows a linear relationship between UVR dose versus melanoma incidence rate from 1995-2004.

The big picture: This study aimed to correlate changes in temperature and UV radiation to the spread of diseases and cancer. With vector-borne diseases being the most sensitive to ecological conditions, researchers chose the West Nile Virus to act as a proxy to all mosquito transmitted diseases. As expected, the data supports the claim that increased temperatures trigger an enhanced risk for not only infectious diseases, but certain cancers as well.

Citation: Mihailović, D. T., Petrić, D., Petrović, T., Hrnjaković-Cvjetković, I., Djurdjevic, V., Nikolić-Đorić, E., Arsenić, I., Petrić, M., Mimić, G., & Ignjatović-Ćupina, A. (2020). Assessment of climate change impact on the malaria vector Anopheles hyrcanus, West Nile disease, and incidence of melanoma in the Vojvodina Province (Serbia) using data from a regional climate model. PLoS ONE, 15(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227679

The relationship between rodents and Homo floresiensis

Temporal shifts in the distribution of murine rodent body size classes at Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia) reveal new insights into the paleoecology of Homo floresiensis and associated fauna

by: E. Grace Veatch, Matthew W. Tocheri, Thomas Sutikna, Kate McGrath, E. Wahyu Saptomo, Jatmiko, and Kristofer M. Helgen.

Summarized by: Kailey McCain

What data were used? Researchers once believed that Homo sapiens (i.e., modern humans) were the only hominid to reach the Indonesian islands. However, in the past few decades anthropologists, archeologists, and paleontologists have discovered an early hominid species’ cultural and skeletal remains, belonging to Homo floresiensis, on the island of Flores. Along with the hominid remains, 257,000 additional vertebrate skeletal elements were identified and 80% of the collected belonged to the murine rodent taxa (i.e., rats). The main rodent genera identified and used in this study varied in body size, which was used as a proxy (i.e., representative) to identify the paleoecology of the environment. The five genera used were: Papagomys, Spelaeomys, Hooijeromys, Komodomys, Paulamys, and Rattus (Figure 1).

Methods: The excavation site for the murine skeletal remains, as well as H. floresiensis, was within the Liang Bua, a limestone cave on Flores Island. The stratigraphy of Liang Bua was divided into sectors based on age, with the oldest being approximately 190-120 ka (thousand years ago) and the youngest sector at less than 3 ka. Once the sites were identified, researchers began excavating the remains by using a method called wet-sieving, which is the process of sediment separation using water to remove certain grain sizes and break apart agglomerates (i.e., a mass of sediment grains).

Once the murine remains were collected, researchers began identifying the different species by using molar and jaw sizes, as well as comparing the skeletal body to size to extant (i.e., living) rodents. In addition to dividing the remains into their different species, they were also further divided by size. The five distinct body size categories are: small (<100 g), medium (100-300 g), large (300-600 g), huge (600-1100 g), and giant (>1100 g).

Figure 1: This image represents how the different murine taxa, Papagomys, Spelaeomys, Hooijeromys, Komodomys, Paulamys, and Rattus, differ in body size and molar size.

Results: The data collected showed that the small and medium sized murines dominated the cave during the first two sectors (190-60 ka) but researchers noted a sharp decline in the medium sized murines during the 60-50 ka age range. This decrease in species can be correlated to the paleoclimate record, which indicated a substantial decrease in available vegetation. As time progressed to the age range 47-12 ka, researchers noticed no significant change in body size. This was a surprise to the researchers due to the geologic record indicating high levels of volcanic activity. The next range, 12-5 ka, exhibited a decrease in overall murine size that can be attributed to the high rainfall and monsoon season recorded for this time period. Finally, the age range 5-3 ka, showed the first increase of medium sized murines which could be correlated to the dispersal of Homo floresiensis and the subsequent opening of habitats, but will need further research to support the claim.

Why is this study important? This study is important because it shows the relationship between the dominant non-human animals and Homo floresiensis within the Liang Bua cave. Additionally, the researchers explored other ecological factors (e.g, weather, resource availability, volcanic activity) and showed how it affects not only the fauna in general, but showed the difference in responses between sizes.

Figure 2: This figure shows two images. Image (a.) shows researchers measuring a large modern cave rat, Papagomys armandvillei. Image (b.) shows a reconstructed image of H. floresiensis carrying a large rat over their shoulder.

The big picture: The researchers set out to determine the ways in which the dominant fauna, second to the hominid species, responded throughout time with the introduction and dispersal Homo floresiensis. While there was a relationship noted between murine size/distribution and hominid involvement, the data also suggested that additional ecological factors may have contributed; therefore, no significant conclusions can be made without additional research regarding the true impact of Homo floresiensis

Citation: Veatch, E. G., Tocheri, M. W., Sutikna, T., McGrath, K., Saptomo, E. W., & Helgen, K. M. (2019). Temporal shifts in the distribution of murine rodent body size classes at Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia) reveal new insights into the paleoecology of Homo floresiensis and associated fauna. Journal of human evolution130, 45-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.02.002

Signs of Injury and Disease in Jurassic Marine Reptiles

Palaeoepidemiology in extinct vertebrate populations: factors influencing skeletal health in Jurassic marine reptiles

Judith M. Pardo-Pérez, Benjamin Kear, and Erin E. Maxwell

Summarized by: Kailey McCain

What data were used? Researchers wanted to create a baseline for measuring overall health of large marine animals in the Jurassic period. Given the prevalence of Ichthyosauria, a large extinct marine reptile, researchers chose to survey five different species/taxa (i.e., biological classification of organisms) that lived at different ocean depths and varied in size: Hauffiopteryx, Stenopterygius, Suevoleviathan, Eurhinosaurus, and Temnodontosaurus.

A total 236 specimens were collected at a Lagerstätte deposit in Germany, which is a site with exceptional (in quantity or quality) fossil preservation.

Figure 1: This image represents four examples of the skeletal pathologies found by researchers. (a) shows stiffness in the femur and fibula (limb bones). (b) shows stiffness in the spinal column. (c) shows a fracture in the gastralium, which provided support in the abdomen. (d) shows a fracture in the rib cage.

Methods: The 236 specimens were classified by species, and then further classified by age range (i.e., juvenile, young adult, adult). Researchers began studying the fossils for signs of trauma that could have resulted from injury or skeletal diseases (pathologies). Due to the large availability of the Stenopterygius specimens, researchers dated and grouped them into three categories regarding the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE). This was a time in the Jurassic Period when the oxygen levels were depleted and toxic greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide) became the major component of the atmosphere; the specimens were grouped as before T-OAE, during  T-OAE, and after T-OAE. The purpose behind comparing pathological data to the T-OAE is to determine if the depletion of oxygen had any significant effect on marine health.

All of the data was inputted into a statistical software, R, to determine any significant correlations and variables. 

Results: The data collected showed that trauma associated with healing was the most common pathology recorded; however, there was not a skeletal region significantly affected more than the others. These commonalities were shared by all five taxa of ichthyosaurs . Additionally, when comparing the overall size of the specimens and percentage of pathologies found, it was determined that the large species were approximately 2.4 times more likely to show signs of trauma and disease. This correlation was also found to be true when looking at the developmental data collected for Stenopteryguis; it was concluded that the adults were 4 times more likely to have signs of disease or trauma than the juvenile specimens.Regarding the data collected for the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event , researchers could not find any significant data that could correlate an increase in pathologies due to the depletion of oxygen.

Figure 2: This image shows a fully preserved fossilized ichthyosaur, Stenopterygius .
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2018/12/incredible-jurassic-ichthyosaur-fossil-preserves-skin-blubber/

Why is this study important? This study showed the differences in skeletal pathologies present in a diverse set of marine reptiles. By differing in size, age, time, and ocean depth, researchers were able to obtain an overall survey of health and easily compare the pathology data to other ecological conditions (e.g., climate change).

The big picture: The research collected in this study provided a baseline for variables that affected the skeletal health of Jurassic marine reptiles. The data supporting the correlations between size and age range of different taxa within the extinct Ichthyosauria can be compared to other extant (i.e., living) reptiles to provide an estimation and a possible explanation for the prevalence of skeletal pathologies.

Citation: Palaeoepidemiology in extinct vertebrate populations: factors influencing skeletal health in Jurassic marine reptiles. (2019). Royal Society Open Science, 6(7). https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.190264

Understanding how Tectonic Activity affected Triassic Vegetation and Climate

Triassic vegetation and climate evolution on the northern margin of Gondwana: a palynological study from Tulong, southern Xizang (Tibet), China

by: Jungang Peng, Jianguo Li, Sam M. Slater, Qianqi Zhanga, Huaicheng Zhu, Vivi Vajda

Summarized by: Kailey McCain

What data were used? Researchers noticed that while there was extensive research in North American and European paleobotany (i.e., plant fossils) from the Triassic period, data was very limited for Southern Asia. To fill this gap in knowledge, 147 samples were collected across China and examined for pollen, dust, and other microscopic fossils (also known as palynomorphs). Additionally, rock samples that dated through the Early Triassic were collected and processed. 

Methods: The samples were processed using hydrochloric acid (HCl is strong acid and has a low pH value ~1) and hydrofluoric acid (HF is a weak acid and has a higher pH value ~6) lab techniques. By using these acids, the microfossils were isolated from the sediment sample and placed on a microscope slide for further investigation. 

The palynology samples were tested for pollen and spores (cells that are capable of developing into a new individual without another reproductive cell). The abundance of specific species were then mapped to illustrate vegetation and climate during the Olenekian, a period of time during the Early Triassic. The identified microfossils can be seen in figure 1. 

Results: The data collected showed that there are roughly three vegetation stages throughout the Early Triassic. The first stage is dominated by pteridosperms (fern-like vegetation lacking spores), which indicated a warm and dry climate. The following stage exhibited a decrease in pteridosperms and an increase in conifers (woody plants). This change in vegetation indicates a decrease in temperature and an increase in humidity. The final stage exhibits a steady increase in conifers and a diverse range in ferns, thus indicating a stable and temperate climate.

Using these stages, researchers were then able to compare the shifts in vegetation and climate to the tectonic activity due to the rifting (splitting) of Gondwana, an ancient supercontinent that split from Pangea. Through the examination of the rifts and ocean levels, the researchers hypothesized that the separation of Gondwana was a driving factor in regional climate and vegetation shifts. 

Figure 1: This image shows some of the microscopic pollen and spore fossils identified. Additionally, the image shows a scale bar (located under F and G) that represents 20 micrometers (µm), which is 1,000,000 times smaller than a meter!

Why is this study important? This study provided insights into the ways tectonic activity affected the environment in an area that lacked prior research. It drew important correlations between climate and tectonic activity. Additionally, evaluating the specific abundance and lack of certain vegetation helps establish evolutionary patterns not only in the Triassic, but also in supercontinents. 

The big picture: Paleobotany and palynological data paint a great picture of what Earth was like during certain time periods. Specifically, the data collected in this study shows a correlation in Triassic vegetation and climate evolution during the rifting of Gondwana in Southern Asia.

Citation: Triassic vegetation and climate evolution on the northern margin of Gondwana: a palynological study from Tulong, southern Xizang (Tibet), China. (2019). Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 175, 74–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2018.06.005

Kailey McCain, Interdisciplinary Natural Sciences Undergraduate

Kailey hiking in the Nantahala National Forest in December, 2019.

Hello, my name is Kailey and I’m a Junior at the University of South Florida majoring in interdisciplinary natural sciences, with an emphasis on geology, chemistry, and biology. Most people are surprised by my degree, and I get a lot of questions about the interdisciplinary aspect. As a future scientist, I believe it is critical to have an interdisciplinary approach to solve problems. Sir Francis Bacon, developer of the scientific method, urged not only scientists, but all people, to remove the lens they look at problems through and take into consideration the myriad of perspectives. To me, my degree embodies that. 

Upon graduation I plan on pursuing a PhD in ecology and evolutionary biology and my research interests are centered around dissecting the effects anthropogenic factors, or human activity, have on disease prevalence and transmission. 

What is your favorite aspect about being a scientist?

Graphic explaining the difference between primary (original research) and secondary evidence (syntheses, summaries).

Growing up, I always had an insatiable curiosity about life and our world. That curiosity has ranged from why we have an atmosphere to how human activity has caused harm, not only to our climate, but to all of ecology. I found that studying natural sciences challenges me, but rewards me by answering those questions.

Another aspect of science I love is the community that being in the sciences gives you! As a young woman, it is incredibly motivating to see such a diverse set of individuals working towards one common goal: expanding the knowledge of humankind. Before I immersed myself into the community, it was hard to see myself as a scientist. This was due to a lack of representation of female scientists; however, now I know that I can be whoever I want and I hope to show other young girls that too.

As to how I got interested in science, I originally went into college as planning on pursuing medicine,  but after taking a history of life course through the Geosciences department, my whole trajectory changed. I suddenly found myself so excited for the lecture and I started asking questions that didn’t have concrete answers, and that captivated me. I always wanted to help people and the world, and becoming a research scientist seemed to fit that more so than anything else.

How does your research and education contribute to the understanding of climate change and to the betterment of society?

By studying the ways in which human activity affects wildlife diseases, scientists are able to predict what our future world will look like, attempt to change the trajectory of diseases, and protect some of the world’s most amazing ecosystems. I also think it’s important to expand on this catch all term “human activity”. This can include, but is not limited to, deforestation, climate change, light pollutants, and habitat fragmentation. All of these actions are intertwined in how we look at protecting the world’s ecosystems, while still allowing for human development.

3D scan of Gyrodes abyssinus, which is Late Cretaceous in age (~100-66 million years ago).

What are your data, and how do you obtain them?

I am currently working on a systematic review of all the meta-analyses (I’ll explain what this means below) on Toxoplasma gondii, which is a type of parasite that is predominantly found in cats and humans. The data collected for this study is not found in the field or even the lab, but in other scientific publications, which is why we call it a meta-analysis! My job is to find all studies that are relevant and point out potential positive correlations between the data for other researchers to explore further.

I am also currently interning at a 3D visualization lab scanning paleontological collections (fig. 2)! The purpose of 3D scanning is to digitize collections that can be shared to people all over the world.The softwares utilized are Geomagic Wrap and Zbrush.

What advice do you have for aspiring scientists?

My advice to aspiring scientists is to not give up! As an undergrad, is it incredibly difficult to remove this level of perfection we place on ourselves, but it is necessary. Everyone has messed up, everyone has failed a test, and no one is perfect. Your well being and mental health is more important than any grade. 

Another piece of advice is to always try. There have been countless opportunities that I could have had, but I was too scared of rejection. At the end of the day, rejection is a part of life (especially the academic life).

 

3D Visualization Undergraduate Internship

Hey everyone! It’s Kailey, an undergraduate student at the sunny University of South Florida.

The image shows a specimen, Gyrodes abyssinus, sitting on a mesh block with a scan via geomagic wrap on the screen in the background.

I wanted to take some time and share with you guys an amazing opportunity I was given earlier this year. As any ambitious college student will tell you, internships are extremely important when it comes to choosing a career path. Not only do they grant students hands-on experience in a particular field, but also general time and knowledge in the workforce. Good internships are hard to come by, which is why I was elated when I got the opportunity to intern at the 3D visualization lab at USF! 

And yes, the lab is as cool as it sounds.

For a place where complex research happens daily, the mission of the lab is rather simple: to harness 3D scanning equipment and data processing softwares. These technological tools have been a wonderful addition to the arts, the humanities, and STEM everywhere, as it has not only supported, but completely transformed, the research in these worlds. This dynamic lab embodies the philosophy of open access research and data sharing, meaning that scientists and researchers from all over the world are able to use its different collections and visit historical sites from the comfort of their homes and offices.

This image shows the Faros arm scanner extended.

My job at the lab was to scan and process some specimens from the department of geosciences’ paleontological collection. The first step in this process is to use a laser scanner and scan my object in various positions (figure 1) using the FaroArm scanner (figure 2). This bad boy has three different joints, making the scanner move around any object seamlessly. The FaroArm also has a probe with a laser, which is essentially taking a bunch of pictures of the object and overlays them. An important note is that these “various positions” need to be easily and manually connected in a software called Geomagic Wrap; therefore, every scan must seamlessly match up like a puzzle! This was probably the most difficult thing to learn, as you not only must think more spatially, but pay close attention to the small, yet distinguable,details, like contour lines and topography (figure 3). In some cases, these small details mean the most to research scientists by showing things like predation scarring and growth lines.

This image shows a close-up shot of the contour lines and topography on the 3D model.

Once the scan is connected and we have a 3D model, the file is switched to a different software called Zbrush. This is where the fun and creative aspects come in! Zbrush allows users to fill in any holes that appear in the scan and clean up any overlapping scan data. This happens when the scans aren’t matched up properly in Geomagic. Next, we paint texture onto the model using different pictures of the fossil. Then, voila, you have a bonafide 3D model (figure 4). The model shown in figure 4 is of Gyrodes abyssinus Morton, a mollusc from the Late Cretaceous. 

I completed a total of three data scans and processes, but was cut short due to the coronavirus pandemic. While my time at the lab was short, I learned so much in terms of technical skills and problem solving. However, the most notable thing I learned was just how interdisciplinary science and research operates at the university level. Networking with archeologists, geologists, anthropologists, and so many more opened my eyes to the different fields contributing to the research world. The experiences I gained at the 3D visualization lab will follow me through my entire academic career.

This is an image of the final 3D model of Gyrodes abyssinus with coloration and texture.

You can visit https://www.usf.edu/arts-sciences/labs/access3d/ for information on the 3D lab and visit https://sketchfab.com/access3d/collections/kailey-mccain-collection to view the rest of my collection.

How Climate Change Impacts the Mortality Rate of Latin American Frogs

An Interaction Between Climate Change and Infectious Disease Drove Widespread Amphibian Declines

by: Jeremy M. Cohen, David J. Civitello, Matthew D. Venesky, Taegan A. McMahon, Jason R. Rohr

Summarized by: Kailey McCain

What data were used? 

This study combined laboratory experiments, field data, and climate records together to support their hypothesis that amphibians have a higher mortality (death) rate when exposed to warmer temperatures, this is known as the “thermal mismatch hypothesis”

Methods: 

Atelopus zeteki or the Panamanian Golden Frog in their natural habitat.

The laboratory experiments consisted of a temperature gradient and a temperature shift experiment. Both experiments exposed an endangered captive frog, Atelopus zeteki or the Panamanian Golden Frog, to a disease causing fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and measured the rate of death. The temperature gradient gradient slowly increased the temperature, while the temperature shift experiment exposed the frog to the fungus at specific temperature units: 14°C, 17°C, 23°C, or 26°C.  

The data was then compared to field data collected from the International Union for Conservation of Nature red list database to observe a real time decline in a total of 66 species of frog. The geographical range for the field data was limited to Latin America and the rate of decline was compared to historic monthly climate data.

Results:  

The results of the temperature gradient and temperature shift experiments show that mortality increased when the infected frog was exposed to higher temperatures. However, it also shows that temperature did not affect the mortality rate of the control group, the non infected frogs. As for the field data collected, the results showed that the frogs’ decline could not be correlated to precipitation nor altitude, but climate change, the thermal mismatch hypothesis clearly  predicted an increased decline of the species.

Figure A represents the data collected for the temperature gradient experiment and shows a linear decline in survival time with an increase in temperature. Figure B represents the data collected for the temperature shift experiment and shows the different temperature units plotted by the proportion alive versus time. The graph indicates that the warmest temperature has the lowest survival rate.

Why is this study important? 

This study tackles two of the largest challenges facing the modern world: climate change and disease prevalence. Some believe these issues are falsely linked, but the evidence collected in this study shows a positive correlation between disease induced death and increased temperature, both in a laboratory environment and the outside world. 

The big picture: 

While this study was isolated in geographical terms, the data collected gives researchers a look into what the future might hold for the spread of diseases in a warming world. Alone, the rising temperatures were not found to increase the rate of mortality; however, when mixed with a pathogen, a deadly combination was created and increased the rate of mortality greatly.

Citation: full citation of paper 

Cohen, J. M., Civitello, D. J., Venesky, M. D., McMahon, T. A., & Rohr, J. R. (2019). An interaction between climate change and infectious disease drove widespread amphibian declines. Global Change Biology, 3, 927. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.usf.edu/10.1111/gcb.14489

Black Lives Matter & STEM

As I write this post, the date is May 30, 2020, approximately five days since the senseless murder of George Floyd by members of the Minneapolis Police Department. Protests have erupted in many cities across the country, and my city, Tampa, is no different. I am faced with the reality of our justice system, racism, and my own privilege as a white American. With this intense (and necessary) magnifying glass set on our country, I can not help but reflect on my surroundings and university. 

My name is Kailey and I am a student at the University of South Florida. A focal point of our university is the Martin Luther King Jr. plaza: here, you will notice a large bust of Dr. King overlooking a reflection pond, as well as his famous “I Have a Dream” speech immortalized in stone. While this part of campus serves as a rallying point for peaceful protests and events, the true meaning and impact of Dr. King’s message is lost in nearly every aspect of society, and higher education is no different.

A National Science Foundation study in 2019 reported that out of all bachelor’s degrees earned in biological sciences in 2014, 4.23% of those were by Black women. 2.83% of all physical science degrees were earned by Black women, and 0.99% of engineering degrees were earned by Black women. While these statistics specifically quantify the degrees earned by  Black women, all marginalized populations face significant barriers to STEM education. Scientific culture and broader society have built these barriers, causing incredible talent and perspective to leave science, or not enter into STEM fields in the first place due, in part, to a lack of representation. 

A lack of diverse and inclusive representation permeated my education growing up, and very likely the majority of my peers. For many people, myself included, the idea of a scientist was dictated by the scientists we learned about and heard from in class: white men. This concept has shifted the dreams of many young people to aspire to enter these fields because they never saw themselves represented as scientists and weren’t encouraged or provided opportunities by the education system to explore this path further. This is oppressive because it paints a completely inaccurate history of science that ignores the achievements of Black scientists, further entrenching science history in white supremacy. Further, lack of representation and over-representation of white men in science cements for white students the idea of “who” is allowed to participate in science- when you only see white scientists, your mind forms that stereotyped image. This negative cycle continues and the problem is exacerbated when marginalized people, and specifically Black people, are made to feel unsafe in public spaces and in outdoor environments. This means that white scientists often make assumptions about Black scientists, paving the way for microaggressions and harassment at scientific institutions. 

As scientists, we cannot remain silent. We need to take action to not only raise awareness of the obstacles Black scientists face, but also actively work towards making the science community anti-racist. Science is not apolitical and it never has been. White scientists, for hundreds of years, have been performing racist experiments, claiming that Black people are “less evolved” or “less intelligent”; scientists have experimented horribly on Black bodies causing unspeakable pain, and developing methods and medications we still use in modern science (e.g., Henrietta Lacks, Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, etc.)

Science has been shaped by white supremacy, just as every other system in the United States has been. The history of racism in science continues to shape how we, meaning white people, treat our Black colleagues and students and this is unacceptable. We cannot remain silent and we must stand with our Black colleagues and neighbors. Finally, we must take action. 

Educate yourself. Read books and articles written by Black writers. Listen and learn from Black activists, professors, community members. Understand that as much as we can try, we will never understand what it is like to live as a Black person in a racist society. Speak out. If you see or hear racism from non-Black people, step in and correct them. If you’re non-Black, you will mess up sometimes. Apologize, listen, and make sure to do better next time. Support initiatives to create programs for Black students at your university, and initiatives to increase support programs for Black students and faculty. I encourage you to contact your local government, make your opinions known, stand up for what you know to be right, and vote! 

These protests all over the country are providing something stronger than a “like” or a “comment” on a social media post can. With the ear-pounding sounds of mourning, and the bravery of those protesting, those that demand peace, equality, and justice for every Black person, they are working towards creating a better world for all. 

I challenge every person with a platform to use that platform for good. Silence is no longer an option. We have to be better and be active allies to causes for racial equality, as well as to our fellow neighbors who have been continually victimized and oppressed by police, the “impartial” criminal justice system, and individual prejudices/biases.

I would like to also recognize and thank Dr. Sarah Sheffield, a geosciences professor at the University of South Florida (USF), Mckenna Dyjak, a recent graduate from USF, and Lisette Melendez, an undergraduate at USF, for editing this post and ensuring our message is heard.

Note from the Editors: If you are interested in more actionable items, ways to become anti-racist, and a list of organizations to financially support please see our statement on Black Lives Matter.