Kailey McCain, Interdisciplinary Natural Sciences Undergraduate

Kailey hiking in the Nantahala National Forest in December, 2019.

Hello, my name is Kailey and I’m a Junior at the University of South Florida majoring in interdisciplinary natural sciences, with an emphasis on geology, chemistry, and biology. Most people are surprised by my degree, and I get a lot of questions about the interdisciplinary aspect. As a future scientist, I believe it is critical to have an interdisciplinary approach to solve problems. Sir Francis Bacon, developer of the scientific method, urged not only scientists, but all people, to remove the lens they look at problems through and take into consideration the myriad of perspectives. To me, my degree embodies that. 

Upon graduation I plan on pursuing a PhD in ecology and evolutionary biology and my research interests are centered around dissecting the effects anthropogenic factors, or human activity, have on disease prevalence and transmission. 

What is your favorite aspect about being a scientist?

Graphic explaining the difference between primary (original research) and secondary evidence (syntheses, summaries).

Growing up, I always had an insatiable curiosity about life and our world. That curiosity has ranged from why we have an atmosphere to how human activity has caused harm, not only to our climate, but to all of ecology. I found that studying natural sciences challenges me, but rewards me by answering those questions.

Another aspect of science I love is the community that being in the sciences gives you! As a young woman, it is incredibly motivating to see such a diverse set of individuals working towards one common goal: expanding the knowledge of humankind. Before I immersed myself into the community, it was hard to see myself as a scientist. This was due to a lack of representation of female scientists; however, now I know that I can be whoever I want and I hope to show other young girls that too.

As to how I got interested in science, I originally went into college as planning on pursuing medicine,  but after taking a history of life course through the Geosciences department, my whole trajectory changed. I suddenly found myself so excited for the lecture and I started asking questions that didn’t have concrete answers, and that captivated me. I always wanted to help people and the world, and becoming a research scientist seemed to fit that more so than anything else.

How does your research and education contribute to the understanding of climate change and to the betterment of society?

By studying the ways in which human activity affects wildlife diseases, scientists are able to predict what our future world will look like, attempt to change the trajectory of diseases, and protect some of the world’s most amazing ecosystems. I also think it’s important to expand on this catch all term “human activity”. This can include, but is not limited to, deforestation, climate change, light pollutants, and habitat fragmentation. All of these actions are intertwined in how we look at protecting the world’s ecosystems, while still allowing for human development.

3D scan of Gyrodes abyssinus, which is Late Cretaceous in age (~100-66 million years ago).

What are your data, and how do you obtain them?

I am currently working on a systematic review of all the meta-analyses (I’ll explain what this means below) on Toxoplasma gondii, which is a type of parasite that is predominantly found in cats and humans. The data collected for this study is not found in the field or even the lab, but in other scientific publications, which is why we call it a meta-analysis! My job is to find all studies that are relevant and point out potential positive correlations between the data for other researchers to explore further.

I am also currently interning at a 3D visualization lab scanning paleontological collections (fig. 2)! The purpose of 3D scanning is to digitize collections that can be shared to people all over the world.The softwares utilized are Geomagic Wrap and Zbrush.

What advice do you have for aspiring scientists?

My advice to aspiring scientists is to not give up! As an undergrad, is it incredibly difficult to remove this level of perfection we place on ourselves, but it is necessary. Everyone has messed up, everyone has failed a test, and no one is perfect. Your well being and mental health is more important than any grade. 

Another piece of advice is to always try. There have been countless opportunities that I could have had, but I was too scared of rejection. At the end of the day, rejection is a part of life (especially the academic life).

 

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Anxiety in Academia

Andy here-

A few weeks ago an undergrad tweeted that their professor had told them they shouldn’t go to grad school if they were having anxiety attacks because they wouldn’t be able to handle it. I replied that it’s doable but difficult. I want to elaborate. I’m trying here to be as specific and open about my experiences as I can. The beginning of this post is a narrative about how my disorder has impacted my career and life, and the bottom is hopefully some helpful tips I’ve found over the years.

I was diagnosed in undergrad with a Generalized Anxiety Disorder, as well as Scholastic and Social Anxiety disorders. When I was diagnosed they said that in part it was because of life circumstances but also because “some people just have jumpier nervous systems”. I have a family history of extremely severe anxiety; mine is not as bad as that relative, though it has impacted my life and career. I’ve been on anti-anxiety drugs (SSRIs, which are also used to treat depression) twice, once in undergraduate and I just restarted them a few weeks ago. I’ve been in therapy and counseling twice, once in undergrad and then again starting soon.

Educational & Professional Life

I failed out of college when I was a freshman/sophomore. This was largely because I had never learned to actually work in high school because I could just coast through. I was advised as a college freshman, because I was good at science, to take the extremely accelerated track at the University of Wisconsin (UW). Taking Organic Chemistry as a freshman with no study skills is a bad idea. After failing out of college I took a few classes at a community college, worked a job where I was stuck in the back of a large room entirely by myself, and retreated into online gaming. Coming back from all that was difficult. I went from not socializing for a full year to being back in large 300 person lectures. The only reason that I ended up in graduate school was because my advisor at UW took a chance on me; my grades were below the minimum for admission. Months of therapy (talk and group) helped some. A part of this experience failing left me with intense impostor syndrome which amplifies aspects of the anxiety disorders (Impostor Syndrome in Graduate School)

I had my first migraine in graduate school. I had just given a presentation to my group that I had been really worried about, and got a migraine on the way home. It became a thing, a massive release of stress and then a migraine. The second one had me go to an Urgent Care facility and put on morphine because of the pain. Medication has helped, but also meditation. My anxiety and stress levels are linked, and so the migraines seem like they’re a manifestation of the anxiety.

One of the things about academia is that every new level brings an additional layer of stress. During my PhD things became more intense again. I never felt like I was accomplishing enough each day, even though I would get to work at 7 or 8 AM and then leave at 5 PM, working once I got home. I was working flat out during those days as well, trying to accomplish as much as I could. I couldn’t shut my brain off once I was trying to get to sleep, so I would be awake for hours. Susanna (my wife) eventually suggested that I stop working at 8, force myself to shut down and take time before going to sleep. I also started to meditate before bed, repeating the thought, “I got enough done today.” It helped. I also accomplished more during the day. Your brain needs downtime, just like the rest of you does.

One persistent feeling is that my accomplishments are not my own. This is a part of impostor syndrome, but it’s also a part of anxiety. I still cannot shake the feeling that the postdoc I had at the National Museum of Natural History was because the curator I worked for wanted a specific speciality and he was friends with my PhD advisor, it wasn’t because of me as a researcher. I know that’s not the case because I got another prestigious fellowship 10 days (Newton Royal Society) after I accepted the NMNH fellowship, one that I can’t figure out how to tie completely to another’s success or rank. I remember having thoughts, though, trying to figure out a way to make it not my victory, but something I got because of another person. My second postdoc I got because I had the specific skills in data analysis they wanted. I know that’s an aspect of me as a researcher, but it feels like luck. Something outside my control. My fellowship feels like it was because my postdoc supervisor is a part of the committee, but I know she was out of the room when they discussed my ranking and selection. I either feel that my accomplishments are because I knew somebody that thought I needed help or I was lucky.

Conferences & Meetings

Networking at meetings is tough. My social anxiety is strongest with people I perceive as ranking above me. As a graduate student, talking to prospective advisors was next to impossible. So is doing the talking with mid or senior level scientists as an Early Career Researcher. It means that my involvement in certain projects is behind where it would be if I were able to network better.

Being at meetings is also exhausting. My social anxiety is best explained in analogy to a chemical reaction. I can switch to a more extroverted person temporarily, it just takes a lot of energy. If you think about a chemical reaction, there’s a certain activation energy needed to promote the reaction. If the reaction is initiating a social interaction, for an extrovert it’s lower, in an introvert it’s higher. For me, a person with social anxiety, it’s higher still, because I can feel my fight-or-flight reaction start when I am meeting another person in a meeting context. Because a meeting is a sustained version, I haven’t come back from a meeting in years without catching some kind of cold. Being in therapy makes this even more apparent. After a first session describing previous issues, why I was seeking help, I was ‘keyed-up’ and having an anxiety attack for the next several hours. I was unable to even look my wife in the eye without having an anxiety/adrenaline response.

If it feels like I’m describing all of this in an over intellectualized way, I am. I’ve done this for years to try and take all the emotions I can out of thinking about this because it helps reduce my anxiety levels. Just writing about this is difficult.

Interviewing & Teaching

Having anxiety means that your self perception is off, at least for me. I almost always feel that job interviews go horribly. The worse I feel the better they seem to go. I was completely convinced that I had made multiple fatal mistakes during my most recent interview. I repeatedly went over all interactions in my head. I spent hours mulling over all the answers I had given. I worried over what exactly to send in my emails. A lot of that is normal. What isn’t normal is that I had a feeling of panic the entire time. Weeks of utter dread. I felt as if I had let down my family, that I was never going to get a job. I told everyone that there was no way that I got that job. I ended up seeking medical help because I thought that my anxiety was going to cost me another job after this.

The first question I received after my talk is a good example. I had just finished and my first question was about the underlying driver of one of the topics I’d talked about. I have spent the last two years working on this question and have supervised three MSc students on it. I 100% knew the answer to this question. As soon as the question was asked, my mind went blank. The answer I finally gave, in my memory, made no sense. I remember not even speaking in complete sentences, instead in phrases or just words. It actually took me a week or two after the interview to have the answer reappear in my head, it was like my mind decided to protect itself by temporarily hiding that information. It really did just pop right back in my head like it had never been gone. This phenomenon happened again after a trip to the doctor discussing my anxiety. I was biking, made a turn, and ended up biking towards an oncoming car because I could not figure out which lane I was supposed to be in. I’ve been living in the UK for nearly two years and commute via bike every day. It happened last week when my group was talking about minerals somebody asked me what the hardest mineral was other than diamond. It’s quartz, but I made a joke because I didn’t want to say that in case I was wrong. Of course it’s quartz, I know I’m not wrong, but I can’t trust my self-perception of my answers, so I hide behind humor.

I got that job. I had completely given up on it and spent two weeks after they told me I was their top candidate feeling like they had made some kind of mistake. I know that my interview can’t have gone as poorly as I feel like it has, simply because if it went as poorly as I think it did there’s no chance I would be their top candidate. I know some of my competition for that job, they are amazing scientists! That’s really the bottom line of having anxiety in academia. You will intellectually know what’s going on. You’re in a grad program, so you fully know that you’re a smart, hard working person (you are). You will, however, feel that someone has made a massive mistake. In graduate school, I knew that nothing hugely bad would come of having a conversation making small talk, but even right now, as I sit at my kitchen table, I can feel some amount of adrenaline building just thinking about it.

All this might sound like me teaching could be a problem. Because my inability is situational however, I can teach just fine. If I know I’m the most knowledgeable person in the room, all of this goes away. If I perceive I’m the top of the hierarchy or an equal, then I don’t have a problem. My issues also recede as I get used to a new person, or while I’m actively suppressing them. Finding the limits of your disease can help figure out where you can and can’t be at ease. Storing up that energy when you can is vital.

Anxiety can also be useful, with some huge caveats. I have figured out how to use it as a tool in certain situations. When trying to get a grant finished, for example, if I can ride the balance between being worried about getting it all done and devolving into a complete panic, I can be exceedingly productive. It’s hard on me, it means that I work really quickly but can miss important details, and it does not work well if I do it over too many days.

It’s also, lastly, important to recognize that a basic truism of academia: there are not enough jobs and we face constant rejection. The constant threat of the complete impossibility of winning this lottery will be felt constantly. I, my family, went through 5 years of instability with constant worry about where we were going to get a paycheck from in a year, two years, three years, in the future. Anxiety issues are going to make that worse. Having a family means there’s even more riding on everything, because it’s not just you, it’s dependents as well. It’s worth it, but go into all of this with thought. Consider support systems, make plans (that’s what we do well, right? Plan to deal with anything that happens?).

Managing Stress & Anxiety

I want to end this with some things that have worked for me to help manage stress and anxiety. I’ve culled these from discussions with therapists, reading, and talking with other people. I hope they help you as well.

Find somebody to talk to that you trust: I would not be in the same mental state if I didn’t have Susanna to talk things through with. If I’m feeling anxious about something, I talk things through with her. She’ll give me an honest but supportive take on whatever it is. She pushes me to find professional help when I need it. For somebody that finds asking for help to also cause anxiety, that’s important. I know this seems like me saying “oh, just find somebody you love. That’ll fix it.” but it doesn’t have to just be a spouse. Find a trusted friend to confide in, or a parent. A support structure is important in graduate school or academia for anybody, but it’s even more important for somebody with anxiety.

Many universities have counseling services that offer a certain number of sessions with student or credentialed therapists. That’s what I started with at UWisc. The University of Bristol even also has a free staff counseling service. Seeking professional help is incredibly helpful. If you are in graduate school, you should recognize that expertise is important. Just because it’s your head, doesn’t mean that you are the best person to think your way out of your issues. I’ve tried. It does not work, a professional can guide you through the process better than you can do yourself.

Stop working: It’s really easy to fall into the trap that getting more stuff done will solve anxiety problems. It won’t. You’ll get more done for a day, then your productivity will begin to drop off, and that’ll cause more anxiety. Having a firm time everyday that no-matter-what you will stop working lets you take space. You cannot work all the time and be productive. People that say they can are wrong and dangerous. It’s not healthy for you or the others around you. I play first person shooter video games (the modern Wolfenstein series is a favorite), it takes me out of the things that are worrying me at the moment and lets me focus on something external. It’s been an effective catharsis for me. Find something that works for you to distract you from constant barrage of thoughts about work.

I now have two kids, and I trained myself to have fairly intense guilt about working from home. While that’s not great at the moment because of the pandemic, it’s been an effective deterrent to working constantly.

Breathe: I meditated for 15-20 minutes before my PhD defense. I put on a specific song that helps calm or center me, closed my eyes, sat cross legged, and tried to clear my head. I’ve been doing this since therapy after my panic attack. It has helped. I have no idea if I’m even meditating correctly, but find something that works for you. You just need to create some mental space from yourself and your stressor.

Give yourself a break: Recognize that this is going to make graduate school harder. It’s going to make being an academic harder. You will feel the lows more than the highs, and academia comes with all sorts of lows. Rejection will feel sometimes like a gut punch, it’ll make you want to leave. Yes, everybody feels this, but you, a person with anxiety, does not have an accurate self perception of your personal successes. I’ve had several really prestigious positions, PI’d a large multi-institution NSF grant as a postdoc, published in Nature, Nature Ecology and Evolution, and a bunch of other really good journals. I just got a research heavy Assistant Professor position, picked from over >100 people. I constantly feel I will need to leave academia imminently because somebody is going to figure out that I’m not as good at something as I should be. I don’t even know what that thing is. You’re going to feel this too. It’s a part of us. Sit with that thought, identify it, and realize that it’s a feeling and it’s not true to what you intellectually know. But then recognize that it sucks to constantly feel like this. It just does! It’s not your fault.

Figure out your triggers: I mean this in both a positive and negative, find things that make your mental state less and more anxious. Figuring out how to calm yourself down is just as important as figuring out what might lead to more anxious feelings.

I listen to a lot of very fast music (the more I think about my disorders the more I realize it’s completely interwoven into every part of my life), which many people have told me would make them feel anxious. A good example is Animals as Leaders – Tempting Time or Daughters – The Hit. This is what I (used to) listen to when I work. It’s quick, layered, and helps clear out the rest of the thoughts that I have rattling around in my head. But the cacophony can make things worse, so sometimes I have other music (e.g., Imogene Heap) which I can use to calm down. For me it’s about finding that balance between using the anxiety as a tool to get things done and not over doing it.

Drugs: I recently went on Sertraline (Zoloft in the States). So far, it’s helping. It’s tough to say, as I got over the initial increase in anxiety the Covid-19 pandemic really gained speed, the UK went on lockdown, and I received my job offer. While it’s tough to say what’s going on for any of us emotionally, both I and Susanna think that the drugs are helping. Taking drugs isn’t a weakness. Some of us (hello!) literally have nervous systems that react stronger to our experiences. Getting help is important.

If you also suffer from Anxiety and want to talk with somebody who has made it through, please do reach out to me. I’m on twitter (@macromicropaleo) or via email (andy.fraass (atsymbol) gmail.com), or anywhere else you can find me. I’m more than happy to talk or write with anybody about my experiences, your experiences, or just to listen. If you want 5 minutes or several hours, please, really do reach out.

3D Visualization Undergraduate Internship

Hey everyone! It’s Kailey, an undergraduate student at the sunny University of South Florida.

The image shows a specimen, Gyrodes abyssinus, sitting on a mesh block with a scan via geomagic wrap on the screen in the background.

I wanted to take some time and share with you guys an amazing opportunity I was given earlier this year. As any ambitious college student will tell you, internships are extremely important when it comes to choosing a career path. Not only do they grant students hands-on experience in a particular field, but also general time and knowledge in the workforce. Good internships are hard to come by, which is why I was elated when I got the opportunity to intern at the 3D visualization lab at USF! 

And yes, the lab is as cool as it sounds.

For a place where complex research happens daily, the mission of the lab is rather simple: to harness 3D scanning equipment and data processing softwares. These technological tools have been a wonderful addition to the arts, the humanities, and STEM everywhere, as it has not only supported, but completely transformed, the research in these worlds. This dynamic lab embodies the philosophy of open access research and data sharing, meaning that scientists and researchers from all over the world are able to use its different collections and visit historical sites from the comfort of their homes and offices.

This image shows the Faros arm scanner extended.

My job at the lab was to scan and process some specimens from the department of geosciences’ paleontological collection. The first step in this process is to use a laser scanner and scan my object in various positions (figure 1) using the FaroArm scanner (figure 2). This bad boy has three different joints, making the scanner move around any object seamlessly. The FaroArm also has a probe with a laser, which is essentially taking a bunch of pictures of the object and overlays them. An important note is that these “various positions” need to be easily and manually connected in a software called Geomagic Wrap; therefore, every scan must seamlessly match up like a puzzle! This was probably the most difficult thing to learn, as you not only must think more spatially, but pay close attention to the small, yet distinguable,details, like contour lines and topography (figure 3). In some cases, these small details mean the most to research scientists by showing things like predation scarring and growth lines.

This image shows a close-up shot of the contour lines and topography on the 3D model.

Once the scan is connected and we have a 3D model, the file is switched to a different software called Zbrush. This is where the fun and creative aspects come in! Zbrush allows users to fill in any holes that appear in the scan and clean up any overlapping scan data. This happens when the scans aren’t matched up properly in Geomagic. Next, we paint texture onto the model using different pictures of the fossil. Then, voila, you have a bonafide 3D model (figure 4). The model shown in figure 4 is of Gyrodes abyssinus Morton, a mollusc from the Late Cretaceous. 

I completed a total of three data scans and processes, but was cut short due to the coronavirus pandemic. While my time at the lab was short, I learned so much in terms of technical skills and problem solving. However, the most notable thing I learned was just how interdisciplinary science and research operates at the university level. Networking with archeologists, geologists, anthropologists, and so many more opened my eyes to the different fields contributing to the research world. The experiences I gained at the 3D visualization lab will follow me through my entire academic career.

This is an image of the final 3D model of Gyrodes abyssinus with coloration and texture.

You can visit https://www.usf.edu/arts-sciences/labs/access3d/ for information on the 3D lab and visit https://sketchfab.com/access3d/collections/kailey-mccain-collection to view the rest of my collection.

Baron Hoffmeister, Environmental Scientist & Geologist

Baron in the Calhan Paint Mines in Calhan, CO.

Hey there! My name is Baron Hoffmeister and I am a graduating senior at the University of South Florida. I am pursuing a Bachelor’s degree in  Environmental science with a minor in geology. I have always been drawn to the outdoors, and extremely curious about nature and how things work. When I decided to attend college I knew that I wanted to study something related to science. I decided to pursue environmental science as I became extremely interested in climate change and resource management.  In my junior semester at USF, I went on my first geology field trip to Fort de Soto Park in St. Petersburg, Florida. This was for USF’s Sedimentary Environments course and the goal of the trip was to study common sedimentary structures associated with barrier island formations. On this field-trip, we explored the barrier islands that make up Fort de Soto park and in several locations took pound core samples and dug trenches. In figure 1 you can observe some of the pound core samples taken from various parts of Fort De Soto Park. This is one of many useful methods that sedimentologists use to understand depositional history within a small region. This hands-on field experience left an impact on me and I immediately fell in love with geology. I was so far along in my environmental science program that it didn’t make sense to switch majors, so I chose to pick up a minor in geology instead. Fortunately, the majority of the geology courses I have taken all allowed me to take trips and participate in fieldwork relating to the courses. Most importantly, each of my professors expresses such a profound passion for geology that it is infectious and this has been instrumental in my admiration for geology. 

Pound core samples from Fort De Soto Park in St. Petersburg, FL.

My favorite part about being a scientist is that it allows me to spend time outdoors learning about the environment and the process that takes place that shapes the world we live in. This has always driven my passion for science and has carried over into my personal life. Any opportunity that I can find to go and explore nature I jump at. Figure 2 is a photo from my last trip to Colorado where I had the chance to explore the Calhan Paint Mines and study the large clay deposits in this region. It was very cold and windy that day. I believe with the windchill the temperature that day was in single digits. There was also a brief snow shower that rolled through and covered the entire park in a fresh layer of snow while we were there. After living in Florida for the past five years it was nice to finally see some snow again! 

Currently, I am interning for a contract management group before I apply to graduate school for sedimentary geology to start in the Fall of 2021.  I am interested in studying sedimentary geology and its relation to paleoclimate. Specifically, I am interested in how past climates have affected the rates of sedimentation and carbon cycling. I want to use this information to understand how current climate change patterns affect carbon cycling and sedimentation throughout the world. Science communication is critical for sharing ideas, research, and for education, but it is also crucial for being a great scientist. That’s why I have decided to write for Time Scavengers. I am excited about this learning process and the opportunity to educate others about geology, and understanding climate change!

I would tell any aspiring scientist to work hard and pursue an education, even if it is through your own efforts and experience.

Black Lives Matter

Time Scavengers Stands in Solidarity with the Black Community

Time Scavengers is devastated by the murders of George Floyd, Ahmaud Arbery, Breonna Taylor, Michael Lorenzo Dean, Tony McDade, Regis Korchinski-Paquet, and all other Black people whose lives were tragically cut short. The continued abuse suffered by the Black community at the hands of police officers and systematic racism is unacceptable. We support and stand in solidarity with our Black friends, colleagues, collaborators, community, and neighbors to dismantle white supremacy and build a society that values and embraces Black freedom and Black lives. 

Our team is dedicated to educational outreach and science communication for the public. Science is not conducted in a vacuum, nor is it apolitical. As Black scientists have been oppressed within the academy both historically and presently, Time Scavengers will continue to promote and amplify the voices of Black scientists and other people of color. We reaffirm our dedicated commitment to highlighting diverse scientific voices on our website and in all of our work. Science is for everyone.

We invite our community and friends to understand and combat racism, be productive Black allies, and actively become anti-racist. Use the links below to find active means to follow, support, listen, and learn from the Black community.

Online Initiatives

Follow these hashtags to learn about the experiences of Black scientists and find new voices to follow.

Places to Donate & Ways to Support Locally

Societies, Bail Funds, Scholarships

Online Products

Resources on Allyship

Anti-Racism Resources

Race and the Criminal Justice System: Where do we go from here? facilitated by Hakeem Jefferson, Assistant Professor of Political Science at Stanford University

Decolonizing Science

Anti-Racism in Academia and Education

LEAD: “I Can’t Breathe”—A Call to Action for Leaders in Higher Education This LEAD conversation will address how faculty, staff, and student leaders in higher education can address the trauma that marginalized populations in our community are facing due to racism and societal injustice. This session will focus on traumas facing the Black community with Angie Stewart (Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Program Lead, Organizational Learning), Dr. Stephen Ward (Director, Semester in Detroit; Associate Professor Residential College, Department of Afroamerican and African Studies) and Justin Woods (M.B.A./M.S.W. Candidate; Founder at Equity Social Venture) as featured guests.

Mentoring Diverse Students & Student Voices

Princeton University The Power of Mentors: Blazing Paths for Underrepresented Minorities in STEM

University of Michigan Constructive Conversations for Societal Change

Tweet with link to talk ‘The ‘Conquest of the Wilderness’ and the Historic Origins of Geology Culture in the United States”

Geoscientists-Specific Resources

Lisette Melendez, Geology and Astronomy Undergraduate Student

Standing outside of NASA Ames, where Lisette worked in aiding the lunar landing mission!

What is your favorite part of being a scientist?

Ever since I was very young, I’ve always had a fascination with geology. In elementary school, I would tout around my battered copy of the Smithsonian handbook on rocks and minerals and take notes in my “research journal”. Rocks littered every available surface of my room, and my ears always perked up when we finally reached the Earth Science section of our science classes. What’s cooler than learning about Earth’s layers and how volcanoes form? During field trips, I would sometimes get separated from the group, too mesmerized by rocks that I found on the ground. Even with all these signs, it wasn’t until the end of my first year in university that I realized that I could become a geologist and work with rocks for a career. 

I started off in a field that I was pressured into but that I had no passion for. How could I miss geology as a career option? For many years prior, every geologist that I encountered in my textbooks were white men. While I was working on one of my assignments, I looked over to see what my friend was working on. The assignment was to use Steno’s Laws of Stratigraphy to determine what order the rock layers were deposited. I thought the assignment was fascinating while my friend looked at me with a strange face. They told me about their professor, Dr. Sheffield, and how passionate she was for geology and all the amazing fieldwork she’s done throughout her career. This was a mindblowing moment for me: it was the first time I learned about a female geologist. That same day, I went to the student affairs office and changed my major to Geology. 

From that day forward, I got to experience first hand what a difference doing what you love made in one’s life. My favorite part of being a scientist is simply that there’s always more to learn. Every single day, I wake up incredibly excited to go to class and learn about minerals, volcanoes, and paleobiology. I still remember being in my old major looking wistfully at the Mineralogy class on the USF course inventory. I’m forever grateful that now, that’s what I study all the time! I look over my room and now there are textbooks on planetary volcanism, astrobiology, and sedimentology that join the rocks scattered on various surfaces. Sometimes, I feel like I never really changed from that child who loved rocks: now, I’m just working to be able to collect rocks for the rest of my life.

What do you do?

Right now, I’m studying geology and astronomy at the University of South Florida. My future goals are to get accepted into a PhD program for planetary science, and then hopefully work on the research team that analyzes samples from the surface of Mars and become a curator at a natural history museum! 

Most of the research I do works towards uncovering the geologic past of celestial objects. It’s the perfect overlap between my two favorite subjects: geology and astronomy! Last summer, I conducted research about Martian ice caps at Brown University through the Leadership Alliance – an awesome program aimed at increasing diversity in STEM (read my Time Scavengers post about it here!). I also interned at NASA, where I helped write the code of a navigation program that would assist scientists locate ideal landing areas on the Moon. This upcoming summer, I’m really excited to be working with the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History on analyzing meteoritic samples collected by NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission. The samples collected contain information on the earliest history of our solar system! I’m using my time in undergraduate studies to get a clearer idea of what branch of planetary science I’d like to delve into in graduate school.

Volunteering as a mentor for NCAS (NASA’s Community College Aerospace Scholars).

How does your research contribute to the understanding of climate change and the betterment of society in general?

I believe research in the planetary sciences helps humanity as a whole by illuminating our role in the universe. By addressing the questions of the universe,  the answers to our day to day problems become clearer through perspective. It’s easier to plot out humanity’s destiny and how to build a better society for everyone by figuring out where we came from and how the universe around us is changing. This is particularly important when considering the future of humans in space. Being able to find geologic analogs of celestial terrain (like the Martian surface) on Earth will help us decide which crops and structures work best for the Martian environment. As we continue exploring the universe, it’s important to keep in mind universal codes of safety, planetary preservation, and anti-imperialism in order to avoid harming the new environments we enter.

What methods do you use to engage your audience and community? What have you found to be the best way to communicate science?

One of the first pieces of advice that one of my mentors, Dr. Mustard, bestowed onto me was that “science is never done in a vacuum”. Collecting scientific data is an incredibly exciting part of research, but it’s also essential to communicate your findings with others to increase scientific literacy and humanity’s pool of knowledge. Science is all about sharing what you’ve learned and what you’ve experienced. It is much more rewarding involving different perspectives and helping everyone feel included. Through my officer positions at two clubs at USF, the Geology Club and the Contemporary Art Museum Club, I promote the importance of STEAM and interdisciplinary research. I believe one of the keys to successful science communication is to express why one’s excited about the topic and to make it relatable to what others are interested in. I’m really excited to join Time Scavengers as a science communications intern in order to hone in on this essential skill and become a better scientist overall.

Standing at the base of the 40 foot radio telescope at Green Bank Observatory!

What advice do you have for aspiring scientists?

My advice would be to just take a moment and think about what you really want from life. I’ve spent countless years just trying to follow what others expected me to do that I never really thought about what I wanted to be. Following the path others decide for you is no way to live your life. You’re the one who will have to live out your career path, so choose one you’re passionate in! There’s definitely space for you! There is such a wide range of fields, from studying bugs to glaciers, you deserve to make your mark the way that you want to.

Finding where you belong is essential to unlocking the zeal that will pull you through obstacles and challenges. Prior to joining the geology department, I was a very shy and reserved person. However, my passion for geology and astronomy (and the endless kindness from geologists) gave me the courage to overcome my anxieties and become resilient in the face of adversity. I transformed from a quiet and socially anxious person into the president of my university’s Geology Club and founder of USF’s Society of Women in Space Exploration Chapter. Openly doing what you love will also surround you with like-minded individuals that are the key to building a good support group! My favorite part about becoming a geologist would definitely be being able to network and meet others who are just as passionate about rocks as I am. It’s exhilarating, being friends with geologists and gathering around in the parking lot of a Waffle House to examine an outcrop. The feeling of togetherness is unmatched.

 

International Ocean Discovery Program Early Career Workshop

Adriane here-

Earlier this year before the world went into lock down, I had the opportunity to participate in an early career researcher (ECR) workshop through the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP). The workshop was focused on how to write a scientific drilling proposal with colleagues and friends.

The workshop was held at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades New York, just north of New York City. At Lamont, scientists and staff manage U.S. scientific support services for IODP, the major collaborative program which, among several other things, allows scientists to live and work at sea for two months drilling and studying sediment cores. The workshop was specifically for early career researchers, which is loosely defined as a researcher who has gained their Ph.D. but has not achieved tenure (that critical phase in a professor’s career where they receive a permanent residence at their college or university).

The Gary C. Comer building on Lamont’s campus, where the IODP ECR workshop was held.

This workshop, which first ran a few years back, was conceived between Time Scavengers’ own Dr. Andrew Fraass and his close colleague, Dr. Chris Lowery. They, along with their colleagues, built the workshop and it has run every 2-3 years since its conception. What is so neat about the workshop is that it is also run and organized by other ECRs, with the help of more senior scientists.

The first day of the workshop focused on introducing the attendees to aspects of IODP. These included presentations on the past and future of scientific ocean drilling and the IODP proposal writing process. We also did participant introductions, where we stood up and had 1 minute to talk about ourselves, our research, etc. using only images on one slide. We, the participants, were also broken out into groups later in the day by themes we identified ourselves as (for example, I indicated I was in the Biosphere group because I work with fossil and am interested in evolutionary questions). From these breakout groups, we then identified 5 places in the Pacific Ocean we would like to target for drilling. Later that night, the workshop organizers held a networking reception for us at a nearby building on campus. The networking event was incredibly cool (they fed us dinner, and it was really great food) and useful (I had the opportunity to meet and speak with other ECRs who have similar interests as myself).

My introductory slide. The upper left box contained our image, name, and association; the upper right box contained a research image (I cheated and included two) and our research interests in three words or less, the bottom left box contained our research expertise and any contact information, the bottom right box contained a mediocre skill we have (again I cheated and used this to plug this website).

The second day of the workshop, we arrived and discussed how to obtain data for a drilling proposal. Just to give some insight into what goes into a drilling proposal, this is a 15+ page document in which scientists write out their hypotheses, where they want to drill on the seafloor, preliminary data that says something to support the hypotheses outlined, and what we call site survey data. Site surveys are when scientists take smaller ships out with an apparatus pulled behind the ship. These apparatuses use sonar to map the features of the bottom of the seafloor, but also the properties of the sediment below the seafloor. The changing densities of the different sediments appear as ‘reflectors’, allowing an MRI-like preliminary investigation of the sediments in which the scientists want to drill into. An entire presentation was dedicated to obtaining older site survey data. We also heard presentations about the different drill ships and drilling platforms implemented by IODP. The second part of the day was again spent working in groups. This time, however, we split ourselves into different groups depending on what area of the Pacific Ocean we were interested in working on. I put myself with the group interested in drilling the southeast Pacific, off the southern coast of New Zealand. Here, we began to come up with hypotheses for our proposals and begin to write those down.

Example of a seismic image from a seismic site survey. The very strong, prominent lines in here are called ‘reflectors’. This image shows the location of a proposed drill location, named SATL-56A. From this seismic image, we can interpret that the top layers of ocean sediments are very flat. The seafloor, which is recognized based on its more ‘spotty’ appearance and lack of horizontal lines, is very prominent here (the top of which is indicated by the green reflector line). These images are essential to include in a drilling proposal so everyone has an idea about what might be expected when drilling.

The third and fourth days of the workshop included limited presentations, with more time dedicated to letting the groups work on their proposals. One of the main outcomes of the workshop is to have participants walk away with an idea of how to write a drilling proposal, but also to have the basic groundwork in place for a proposal with a group of people who share similar interests. So ample time was given for the participants to refine their hypotheses, find some preliminary data about their drilling locations from online databases, and build a presentation to present to the entire workshop. On the afternoon of the fourth day, the teams presented their ideas to everyone, including more senior scientists who have submitted drilling proposals in the past and have worked on panels to evaluate others’ drilling proposals.

All in all, this was a great workshop that really allowed for folks to learn more about the IODP program, where and how to find important resources, and how to begin writing these major drilling proposals. These events are particularly important for scientists from marginalized backgrounds and first-generation scientists. For me (a first-generation scientist), making connections with others is sometimes very difficult, as I have terrible imposter syndrome (when you feel like you don’t belong in a community and that you will be found out as an imposter) and am hyper aware that I was raised quite differently than most of my peers. Being in such a setting, with other scientists, forced to work together, is terrifying but also good because I had the opportunity to talk to and work with people I would not normally work with. For example, I had wonderful discussions with microbiologists and professors whose work focuses more on tectonics, people from two research areas which I hardly interacted with previously.

Thomas Henry Culhane Ph.D. and Enas Culhane, Community Scientists, Activists, and Teachers

What is your favorite part about being a scientist and how did you get interested in science?

We love the problem solving interplay that occurs when we are able to exchange techniques for Do-it-Yourself construction of appropriate technologies with  communities facing environmental and climatic challenges. We became interested in exploring the synergies between human and non-human communities after our personal experiences of disruptions in environmental and social services as the results of minor and major natural disasters (earthquakes and hurricanes, wars and occupations and economic deprivation) in our homelands and during our travels.

What do you do?

We focus on harnessing local resources, using biomimicry and permaculture design and finding ways to cooperate with microbial and other biological systems  to improve and develop  sustainable lifestyles. In particular, we “life-test” food-energy-water and zero waste “nexus” technologies for closing the loop between “food-waste” and “toilet waste” and other “organic residuals” using self-built  biodigesters and hydroponic systems to produce fuel, food and fertilizer and create healthy soil ecosystems. The heart of our work is outreach and education so that we “teach a woman to fish” rather than “give a man a fish” and empower everybody to participate in the much needed zero-waste  “circular economy”.

Enas Culhane, Dr. T.H. Culhane and Suleiman Halasah introducing the “Solar CITIES Pickle Barrel Biodigester” in a workshop at Talitha Kumi Environmental Education Center in Beit Djala, Bethlehem, Palestine.

How does your research contribute to the understanding of climate change and to the betterment of society in general?

Modelling and creating an attitude of  self reliance and local resilience and a more accountable relationship between consumption patterns  and self-provisioning capacity helps society adapt to and mitigate the changes in climate and the losses of productive land and water ecosystems that are a consequence of the bad practices promulgated in the Anthropocene.

What are your data and how do you obtain them?

We teach a new course at the University of South Florida called “Envisioning Sustainability” that uses VR/AR and game development software and hardware and visual storytelling to help students develop interactive “5D” models/simulations and digital assets  that show the application of best practice technologies to their own homes/neighborhoods and areas of interest. These data can then be shared on-line and act as immersive meeting spaces for testing ideas before attempting to implement them in the field.

What advice do you have for aspiring scientists?

Our best advice for aspiring scientists is to humbly consider yourself a small but important part of a much larger “ecology of mind” and an unbroken thread in history’s “Great Conversation” and Co-Evolutionary Process  and strive to contribute your observations, insights and epiphanies in a cooperative open source manner for the betterment of all (human and non-human).

Dr. Culhane is the Director of the Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Concentration in the Patel College of Global Sustainability at the University of South Florida. Both he and Enas Culhane are community scientists, activists, and teachers. To learn more about their work, visit their website, blog, and Facebook group

Interning at a Paleontology Lab

Haley here –

A Busycon coactatum, or Turnip Whelk, specimen.

I recently started interning with Dr. Sarah Sheffield (one of Time Scavenger’s collaborators and USF professor) at the University of South Florida (USF)! As a high school senior, this has been an extremely influential experience to me. With Dr. Sheffield, I have been learning how to catalog fossils, and I have been slowly (but surely!) entering the USF collections to an online database (MyFossil). Along with learning how to photograph and catalog fossils, I have been able to learn about graduate and undergraduate research, sit in on a college level course, learn about fossil identification and photography (1), and meet some amazing people.

I was able to have this internship experience through a class called Executive Internship that is offered to seniors at the high school I attend. This class spends the first nine weeks teaching career skills like writing a resume and cover letter, interview etiquette, and effective communication. Throughout the first nine weeks, we are encouraged to research various career paths that interest us and speak with people working in those careers. By the end of the nine weeks, we are expected to have secured an internship. The school partners with various businesses (such as the Florida Aquarium) in order to ensure that students have options. Some students use these connections, while others choose to intern with businesses they have been to before or reach out to family and friends for suggestions. Others -like myself- email everyone they can think of to see what they would think about having a high school intern. I was fortunate enough that one of the people I reached out to suggested that I speak with Dr. Sheffield, and I was even more fortunate that Dr. Sheffield found a project that she wanted to start and was willing to allow me to help. After everyone has secured an internship and we have completed the first nine weeks of class, all of the interns are given permission to sign out of school instead of attending Executive Internship class. In exchange for essentially leaving a class before school ends, all of the interns are required to record an average of five hours per week in our internship and complete a weekly log. Other than the hour requirement and log, internship schedules and tasks vary for each student.

I can not say when I first became interested in paleontology and geology, but this internship experience has only helped my interest grow. When trying to explain why I wanted to study those fields, my mom helpfully explained that I had “always been a rock girl” which sums it up pretty well. From family trips to North Carolina when I was in elementary school, I became fascinated by the variety of gems and minerals you could find. As I took more science classes, I learned about crystal structures and how various formations occur. In a public speaking class, I was able to pick any topic I wanted and ended up falling into a rabbit hole of the history and changes of paleo-illustration. I think part of what draws me to these fields is how seamlessly they integrate with so many other fields. From chemistry and biology, to history or art, there are so many aspects of paleontology and geology that can combine with other fields. In any case, there is always something new to learn and something to dig deeper into that can reveal so much. This is only highlighted by my experience sitting in on Dr. Sheffield’s class. The class addresses the evolution of life on Earth, but reaches implications of what we truly define as Homo sapiens, the history of paleontology in the United States, biomechanics (how organisms move), and much more.

Bryozoan encrusting on a Busycon carica (Knobbed Whelk) specimen.

When I started my internship, I was unsure what to expect. I am a high schooler, and I was going to be working with a college professor to begin a new project. I was excited to learn, but I can say that I definitely did not expect to come home and tell my parents that I wished there were more Anadara (2) specimens because they were the most fun to photograph. I learned the conventional lighting angles to use for fossil photography, how to measure various shells, and the information needed to catalog fossils. Properly labeled fossils soon became a valued commodity after some specimens only had labels like “bivalve”, “east coast”, or “recent” specimens. To catalog the specimens, I have been using the MyFossil database. It is an extraordinary website that allows museums and researchers to share their specimens so that they are available world-wide. It is amazing to know that I can catalog a specimen and see it appear online next to a trilobite specimen from China and a shark tooth from California. MyFossil has an important feature that allows specimens with detailed information (classification, dimensions, geochronology, and locality) to be marked research grade. This allows MyFossil to function as both a free online museum and as a valuable tool to researchers.

Learning how to catalog fossils entails learning about fossils just from exposure. I have learned about the variety of features of shells and how they function for each species. In order to revise some entries to make them research grade, I have used a website called Macrostrat. By looking up geochronology based on lithostratigraphy or formation, I have begun to recognize the common  rock units of various sites in Florida. I have been able to learn more about fossil features by asking how to denote various characteristics like boring. A notable specimen of snail had a bryozoan encrusting (3). By cataloging fossils and asking about them as I do, I have learned much more than what I expected to learn from the cataloging labels.

This internship has been a great learning experience. I was admittedly unsure of what I wanted to do in college, other than the fact that I wanted to do something with geology and fossils. Interning has allowed me to learn, discuss projects with others, and see the sheer variety of research within the USF School of Geosciences. This, paired with everyone’s enthusiasm for their research, has helped me see the kind of environment that I want to be a part of. It has been an opportunity that has allowed me to gain a better understanding of the college experience, and it has allowed me to have hands-on research experience in the field that I love. I look forward to expanding what I have learned even more through the rest of my internship!

Fossils of Alberta

Map of Canada.

Kristina here –

If you ever find yourself in Canada and have an interest in palaeontology (yes, we spell “paleontology” with an extra “a” up here) and the geosciences, Alberta is a treasure-trove of cool fossil sites and excellent museums. For those of you that might not be familiar with Canadian geography, Alberta is one province east of British Columbia, separated by the Rocky Mountains, and shares the Canada-U.S. border with the state of Montana. Alberta is known for its ranch lands (beef production), prairie crops, great ski hills in the Rockies, and the “oil sands” (“tar sands”) – Canada’s major oil and gas deposit which is, for better or worse, still an important part of the local economy. Oil and gas deposits are often referred to as “fossil fuels”, and as you might have guessed, Alberta also has a LOT of fossil deposits! Alberta is one of the best places in the world to find dinosaur fossils, but there are so many other amazing fossil sites too! I’m here to tell you about a few of the highlights.

Geologic map of Alberta. Image from Weides et al. (2011).

But first, some background. Why does Alberta have so many fossils? Rocks in Alberta are part of what is known as the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), a massive package of sedimentary rocks nestled to the west of the Canadian Shield (part of the original continent, or craton, of North America). Throughout its geologic history, Alberta has been part of various shallow seaways next to this North American craton, and at times has been above sea-level, meaning that there is a mix of shallow marine and low-land terrestrial deposits. Generally, both shallow marine and low-land terrestrial deposits have the best rock records, as eroded rock material tends to get swept easily into these environments, creating the perfect conditions for fossil formation (rapid burial of organisms is key for forming fossils). For example, during the time of the dinosaurs (Mesozoic), the Rocky Mountains were forming, meaning all of the rocks on the western side of Alberta were getting pushed up, while at the same time experiencing erosion that carried all of that sedimentary material down and towards the east, where there was a shallow seaway called the Western Interior Seaway that acted as a giant catch basin for all of that material. The result? Lots and lots of awesome fossils! Here are just a few notable sites:

The Badlands of Alberta. Image from Natulive Canada.

The Badlands

Alberta’s badlands have some pretty spectacular geologic formations. The term “badlands” refers to an area where there has been interesting erosion of large packages of clay-rich sedimentary rocks, usually caused by wind and water (rivers). Sedimentary rock layers can have different hardnesses, so the layers might erode at different rates, causing interesting erosional features like hoodoos. In southwestern Alberta, the Red Deer River has cut through these layers over time to form badlands.

Alberta’s badlands are best known for Late Cretaceous dinosaurs, but there are many important microfossil sites containing other small reptiles, fish, and mammals, as well as plants, and invertebrates too. Some of the more famous fossils to come out of the area include: Albertosaurus (a tyrannosaur that is smaller, and slightly older than T. rex), the first dinosaur found in Alberta (hence the name); a massive bonebed of Centrosaurus, a horned and frilled dinosaur (Ceratopsian); another ceratopsian called Chasmosaurus, including a beautifully preserved juvenile (baby) discovered a few years ago; and a lot of hadrosaurs (the duckbilled dinosaurs). Alberta is arguably one of the best places in the world to find duckbill dinosaurs!

Baby Chasmosaurus skeleton. Image from Currie et al. (2016).

If you love palaeontology, Alberta’s badlands would definitely be a good place to visit. The best places for the public to visit and explore are Dinosaur Provincial Park (a UNESCO World Heritage Site near the town of Brooks), and the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller.

Grande Prairie Area

Most people think of the badlands when they think of fossils in Alberta, but fossils can be found just about everywhere in the province. There’s even a bonebed in the capital city of Edmonton! If you travel northwest of Edmonton to the town of Wembley (near Grande Prairie), you can visit another museum called the Philip J. Currie Dinosaur Museum (named after famous Canadian palaeontologist Phil Currie, who helped found the Royal Tyrrell Museum, and is now a professor at the University of Alberta). The most famous fossil from the area is Pachyrhinosaurus, another of the horned and frilled (ceratopsian) dinosaurs that has one of the most heavily-built skulls of any vertebrate animal. There are also other dinosaurs found around the area, as well as other reptiles.

A Pachyrhinosaurus fossil. Image from Etemenanki 3 (Wikipedia).

Fort McMurray Area

On the northeastern side of the province, is the town of Fort McMurray. Fort McMurray is situated on the very edge of the oil sands, and its population is mostly tied to the oil and gas industry. The oil sands themselves are a very large deposit of Early Cretaceous sandstones, called the McMurray Formation. Most of the fossils within the McMurray Formation itself consist of trace fossils like Skolithos, burrows of small marine animals. The combination of these sandstones and trace fossils became a massive trap for the thick, tarry oil, known as bitumen. Because of the oil exploration in the area, crews occasionally unearth larger fossils, including an exceptionally well-preserved armoured dinosaur called Borealopelta. It was discovered in 2011, and was only recently prepared and described. I was lucky enough to see this specimen in person just last week, and it honestly took my breath away with its incredible preservation. It’s basically a mummy with the skin and armour still intact and truly does look like it was frozen in time.

The fossil of Borealopelta. Image from Etemenanki3 (Wikipedia).

Beneath the oilsands lies a large unconformity where a large piece of time/rock record is missing. The package of rocks underneath the McMurray Formation is called the Waterways Formation which is where the oil itself often comes from. The Waterways Formation is mid-late Devonian in age (about 390 million years), meaning that there is about 200 million years of time missing between the Waterways and McMurray Formations! At the time when the Waterways Formation was being deposited, Alberta was mostly underwater and near the equator, meaning that conditions were perfect for giant reefs to form. The Waterways is full of a diverse assemblage of marine invertebrates that lived either on or near this reef system, which was built mostly by a type of sponge called a stromatoporoid. There are also abundant brachiopod communities in the Waterways Formation, and they are great for studying things like functional morphology (the relationships between an organism’s shape and how it lived), biotic interactions with encrusting organisms, and community evolution. I did my undergraduate and M.Sc. projects on these brachiopod communities, and still love working on Waterways fossils.

Allberta ammolite. Image from Gregory Philips (Wikipedia).

Other Important Alberta Fossil Sites:

There are too many awesome fossil sites in Alberta to describe in detail, but other notable fossils and areas include:

Korite Mine near Lethbridge – The only mine in the world to produce ammolite, a gemstone made from the unique preservation of Cretaceous ammonites (a shelled cephalopod, relative of octopus and squid).

Insect and dinosaur feathers in amber – some of the most fossil (inclusion) rich amber in the world is found in southern Alberta and Canada.

Joffre Bridge – an amazing Late Palaeocene deposit of incredibly well-preserved fossil plants, including leaves, seeds, whole plants, and trees. Fossil flora include lycopsids, Ginko, Equisetum, Metasequoia, and many others.

Insects in amber. Image from McKellar and Engel (2013).

The Burgess Shale – technically in Yoho National Park in B.C., but people passing through Banff and the Rockies into B.C. often come from the Alberta-side. The Burgess Shale is one of the most important and oldest fossil sites in the world, containing a diverse assemblage of bizarre late Cambrian fossils, including Hallucigenia, Anomalocaris, and trilobites, and many soft-bodied organisms.

A note about fossil collecting in Canada:

Don’t. The rules in Canada are much more strict than in the United States. It is illegal to collect fossils in Canada without permits, and those can only be given to professional palaeontologists that work for the government, museums, or universities. Fossils in Canada are considered “Crown Property”, meaning that they are property of Canada and the Queen (we are part of the Commonwealth), and are protected by the Heritage Resource Act. Even palaeontologists cannot claim ownership over the fossils on which they work.

References:

Barclay K.M., Schneider C.L., Leighton, L.R. 2015. Breaking the mold: using biomechanical experiments to assess the life orientation of dorsibiconvex brachiopods. Paleobiology 41(1):122 – 133. DOI: 10.1017/pab.2014.8

Currie P.J., Holmes R.B., Ryan M.J., and Coy C. 2016. A juvenile chasmosaurine ceratopsid (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from the Dinosaur Park Formation, Alberta, Canada. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2015.1048348.

McKellar R.C., Engel M.S. 2013. New bethylid and chrysidid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) from Canadian Late Cretaceous amber. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 88(4):433-451. DOI: 10.1007/s12542-013-0208-y

Mendonca S., Barclay K.M., Schneider C.L., Molinaro D.J., Webb A.E., Forcino F.L., Leighton L.R. 2018. Analyzing trends in tropical Devonian brachiopod communities during environmental change in the Waterways Formation of northern Alberta. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.06.020

Weides S., Moeck I., Babadagli T., Bauer K. , Grobe M., Heidbach O., Huenges E., Idowu O., Majorowicz J., Rostron B., Schmitt D.,2 , Unsworth M. 2011. Geothermal technology and exploration of geothermal resources in Northern and Central Alberta. AAPG/SPE/SEG HEDBERG RESEARCH CONFERENCE “Enhanced Geothermal Systems” March 14-18, 2011 — Napa, California