Understanding how climate change affects predator-prey relationships in snails and clams

Climate-mediated changes in predator-prey interactions in the fossil record: a case study using shell-drilling gastropods from the Pleistocene Japan Sea

Tomoki Chiba and Shinichi Sato

Summarized by Baron Hoffmeister

What data were used? This study used a predator-prey analysis of drill holes found on fossil bivalve (clam) shells produced by gastropods (snails) found in the Oga Peninsula off the coast of Japan.

Methods: This study used computer analysis on fossil assemblages of bivalves to determine the location of predatory drill holes and the species of bivalves which indicated whether they are warm water dominant or cold water dominant species. The location of the drill holes on the bivalve shells was also analyzed to determine different predatory gastropods (Figure 1).

Figure 1. These are photographs of two predatory drill holes taken from a microscope. Section A-C is a predatory drill hole located on the center of the shell, and section D-F is a drill hole located on the shell edge. These two different types of predation patterns indicate two separate predatory gastropod species. Image from Chiba and Sato (2016).

Results: This study showed that drilling predation was influenced by the change of sea surface temperatures and sea level due to glacial-interglacial climate cycles. A glacial period occurs due to cool temperatures and glacial advancement, and an interglacial period occurs when glaciers retreat and sea level rises due to warming temperatures. As warm water currents decrease, so does the presence of warm-water predator gastropods. This causes them to shift their range, therefore changing rates of predator and prey interactions. In this study, predation slowed as seawater temperatures decreased and in turn found that this moderated the predation pressure between the gastropods and bivalve prey. This study also found that predator and prey interactions in a shallow-marine ecosystem are likely to weaken with cooling temperatures and strengthen with warming temperatures.

Why is this study important? This study indicates that predator-prey relationships can be used to help interpret changing climates and the implications it has on ecosystems. This study also notes that ocean climate variability has large implications of range shifts which can be used to interpret how organisms respond to changing climate conditions.

The big picture: The information found in this study can be used to help interpret current-day climate change and its influence on predator-prey relationships in relation to the biogeographical distribution of species due to ocean temperatures. This is useful for identifying ecosystems globally.


Chiba, T., and Sato, S. I.. (2016). Climate-mediated changes in predator-prey interactions in the fossil record: a case study using shell-drilling gastropods from the Pleistocene Japan Sea. Paleobiology 42(2), 257–268. doi: 10.1017/pab.2015.38

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