A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Women’s Agency and Adaptive Capacity in Climate Change Hotspots in Asia and Africa
by: Nitya Rao, Arabinda Mishra, Anjal Prakash, Chandni Singh, Ayesha Qaisrani, Prathigna Poonacha, Katharine Vincent, and Claire Bedelian
Summarized by: Lisette Melendez
What data were used? This study focused on the lives of 25 women from geographically different areas in Africa and Asia, including deserts, mountains, and deltas. Even though their cultures and livelihoods differed, they were connected by one phenomenon: climate change. Climate change is something that affects humanity as a whole, but the most severe impact will be felt by our vulnerable communities. As summers grow hotter and droughts increase, those whose livelihoods depend on natural resources will face extreme adversity in the coming years.
Methods: The focal point of the study was to investigate how a woman’s agency – or ability to make meaningful and strategic decisions – was impacted by her surroundings. During field research, each woman was interviewed and their livelihood, exposure to environmental risks (like cyclones, flooding, and storm surges), and societal standing were charted. Then, conditions like material possessions, supportive legal systems, and environmental stress were analyzed in each situation to measure the impact each had on the given woman’s life.
Results: With climate change leading to inconsistent rain and extreme temperatures, land becomes infertile and inadequate for farming. Men often migrate away in search of better job opportunities, and while this presents as a source of empowerment for women, with the chance of increasing their involvement in managing money, the research shows it was actually a burden. One young woman noted, ‘Men can easily migrate for work whereas we have to stay here (at home) to take care of the family’. The women were often left alone to provide food for their children and maintain the crops and pay the bills. Even in states with relief programs for floods and droughts, women were often excluded from receiving aid – reinforcing cultural norms that disadvantage women globally. The same trend can be seen in the United States right at this very moment, with up to 90% of women and minority business owners being excluded from the Paycheck Protection Program.
Environmental stress overshadowed the benefits women received from becoming a greater part in household decisions and in the workforce. Why? Because climate change has destructive consequences for the environment in which these women base their lives on. The struggle to simply survive in barren fields forces women to work harder, in poorer conditions, and for lower wages.
Why is this study important? This study provides vital information for governments to implement effective social programs for their citizens. It advances conversations about gender equality on the international stage and urges leaders to commit to gender equality when drafting important documents like the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
The big picture: The negative environmental impacts of human-driven climate change are now inevitable: global temperatures will continue to rise, droughts will become more prevalent, and storms will intensify. It is important, now more than ever, to ensure that countries have the necessary social programs that can effectively help people sustainably adapt to the changing environment. Resources and adaptation strategies must be made available to the communities that are most vulnerable to fluctuating circumstances.
Citation: Rao, N., Mishra, A., Prakash, A. et al. A qualitative comparative analysis of women’s agency and adaptive capacity in climate change hotspots in Asia and Africa. Nat. Clim. Chang. 9, 964–971 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-019-0638-y