Understanding how Tectonic Activity affected Triassic Vegetation and Climate

Triassic vegetation and climate evolution on the northern margin of Gondwana: a palynological study from Tulong, southern Xizang (Tibet), China

by: Jungang Peng, Jianguo Li, Sam M. Slater, Qianqi Zhanga, Huaicheng Zhu, Vivi Vajda

Summarized by: Kailey McCain

What data were used? Researchers noticed that while there was extensive research in North American and European paleobotany (i.e., plant fossils) from the Triassic period, data was very limited for Southern Asia. To fill this gap in knowledge, 147 samples were collected across China and examined for pollen, dust, and other microscopic fossils (also known as palynomorphs). Additionally, rock samples that dated through the Early Triassic were collected and processed. 

Methods: The samples were processed using hydrochloric acid (HCl is strong acid and has a low pH value ~1) and hydrofluoric acid (HF is a weak acid and has a higher pH value ~6) lab techniques. By using these acids, the microfossils were isolated from the sediment sample and placed on a microscope slide for further investigation. 

The palynology samples were tested for pollen and spores (cells that are capable of developing into a new individual without another reproductive cell). The abundance of specific species were then mapped to illustrate vegetation and climate during the Olenekian, a period of time during the Early Triassic. The identified microfossils can be seen in figure 1. 

Results: The data collected showed that there are roughly three vegetation stages throughout the Early Triassic. The first stage is dominated by pteridosperms (fern-like vegetation lacking spores), which indicated a warm and dry climate. The following stage exhibited a decrease in pteridosperms and an increase in conifers (woody plants). This change in vegetation indicates a decrease in temperature and an increase in humidity. The final stage exhibits a steady increase in conifers and a diverse range in ferns, thus indicating a stable and temperate climate.

Using these stages, researchers were then able to compare the shifts in vegetation and climate to the tectonic activity due to the rifting (splitting) of Gondwana, an ancient supercontinent that split from Pangea. Through the examination of the rifts and ocean levels, the researchers hypothesized that the separation of Gondwana was a driving factor in regional climate and vegetation shifts. 

Figure 1: This image shows some of the microscopic pollen and spore fossils identified. Additionally, the image shows a scale bar (located under F and G) that represents 20 micrometers (µm), which is 1,000,000 times smaller than a meter!

Why is this study important? This study provided insights into the ways tectonic activity affected the environment in an area that lacked prior research. It drew important correlations between climate and tectonic activity. Additionally, evaluating the specific abundance and lack of certain vegetation helps establish evolutionary patterns not only in the Triassic, but also in supercontinents. 

The big picture: Paleobotany and palynological data paint a great picture of what Earth was like during certain time periods. Specifically, the data collected in this study shows a correlation in Triassic vegetation and climate evolution during the rifting of Gondwana in Southern Asia.

Citation: Triassic vegetation and climate evolution on the northern margin of Gondwana: a palynological study from Tulong, southern Xizang (Tibet), China. (2019). Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 175, 74–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2018.06.005

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.