Sam Miller, Hydrologist

What is your favorite part about being a scientist and how did you get interested in science in general?
I enjoy exploring in the field to help find clues that support our theory and understanding of how our world works and using that experience to formulate better hypotheses and tests that will push the science forward. Our world is a fascinating place with endless opportunities to learn. Learning is humbling (“The more I learn, the more I realize how much I don’t know” -Einstein).

In laymen’s terms, what do you do?
I study streamflow generation in mountain environments of the western U.S. Or how snow(melt) becomes (stream)flow. Learn more about streamflow and the water cycle by clicking here. Mountains of the world have been termed ‘water towers for humanity’ due to the variety of downstream users reliant on water that originates as high-elevation snowpack. Population growth and migration combined with a warming climate is putting additional stresses on water resources originating from mountain snowpack, thus it is critical we have a thorough knowledge of how and where our streamflow originates.

There are a variety of approaches and scales used to study hydrology. I generally work at the watershed scale to perform stream gaging and measure natural tracers of the water cycle (electrical conductivity and water isotopes). Combining stream discharge and tracer data allows you to separate streamflow into different origins. Learn more about the field of hydrology by clicking here.

How does your research contribute to the understanding of climate change?
When temperatures warm, mountain snowpack begins melting earlier in the year. Earlier snowmelt and subsequent streamflow response has a variety of consequences ranging from biological impairment associated with changes to the natural flow regime to shifts in the timing and magnitude of water available for downstream reservoirs and irrigation. Importantly, earlier snowmelt often results in lower summer streamflow which can have detrimental effects in arid regions with an increasing demand for water. Part of my research aims to identify areas where this earlier shift in snowmelt is having the most adverse effects on summer streamflow by conducting an empirical, retrospective analysis from hundreds of stream gages in the western U.S.

What are your data and how do you obtain your data?
I use a combination of data I collect myself from field work in the Snowy Range of Wyoming, streamflow data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and snowpack data from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The USGS and NRCS data can be easily obtained from packages in R (‘dataRetrieval’ and ‘RNRCS’) but is less satisfying than digging 10 feet to install your own data loggers.

What advice would you give to young aspiring scientists?
I would advise young aspiring scientists to become proficient in a programming language (preferably several) as soon as possible. As computing power and data continue to grow, it is important that we make efficient use of our time. Also make sure you do not lose sight of the passions that drove you to pursue your career in the first place.

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