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An Exceptionally Preserved Three-Dimensional Armored Dinosaur Reveals Insights into Coloration and Cretaceous Predator-Prey Dynamics

Caleb M. Brown, Donald M. Henderson, Jakob Vinther, Ian Fletcher, Ainara Sistiaga, Jorsua Herrera, Roger E. Summons

Summarized by Time Scavengers contributor, Maggie Limbeck

What data were used? The holotype specimen (fossil or other specimen that all others are compared to to determine what it is) of Borealopelta markmitchelli was used for all experiments touched on in this article. Data was also collected from other members of the Ankylosauria (armored, herbivorous dinosaurs with a club on their tail) clade for comparison.

Methods: A phylogenetic analysis (family tree) was completed using this new dino as well as others from the Ankylosauria and Nodosauridae (Ankylosaurs missing the club on their tail) clades to determine where in the dinosaur tree B. markmitchelli belongs. This also provided data for comparison in life habit and some of the unusual features of this particular dinosaur. Additionally, geochemical studies were done on this specimen, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS). Both of these methods were used to get an idea of what the preserved organic material on the specimen was and determine what kinds of fossil melanins (pigments) were present.

Results: The resulting phylogenetic tree from this study does place B. markmitchelli where one would expect it to go within the Ankylosauria tree (within the Nodosauridae clade). The TOF-SIMS experiment showed that there were ions present that indicate benzothiazole and therefore pheomelanin was present. These particular chemicals would indicate that parts of this dinosaur were reddish-brown in color. However, not all parts of the osteoderm (bony skin) and epidermal coverings (scales) show this reddish-brown coloration.

Figure 1. A graphical summary of the paper. We see an image of B. markmitchelli that is exceptionally preserved, the results of the mass spectroscopy experiments that told us that there is countershading (camouflage) caused by the pigment pheomelanin that gave the dinosaur a reddish brown color. This reddish-brown color is a result of strong predation pressure and an attempt to better camouflage themselves.

Why is this study important? This study is important because it highlights how much we can learn from one extremely well preserved individual fossil. It was used in a phylogenetic analysis to determine where it belongs in the dinosaur-scheme of things, images were taken of the skull, and geochemical data was returned to determine the coloration of the skin. From these studies the scientists were able to determine that these dinosaurs used camouflage to help protect them from predators. This is very different from what we see today in predator-prey interactions. Borealopelta markmitchelli was by no means a small dinosaur (~5.5m long and ~1,300kg) and had significant body armor yet it still needed camouflage. Today, large mammals comparable to this size do not need camouflage because even the fiercest predator does not go after grown adults. This new relationship between Cretaceous predator and prey highlights major differences in large predator-prey interactions through time. This specimen will continue to play a major role in research for years to come.

The big picture: There are really two big picture things to take away from this article. The first being that science, and ground breaking science in particular, is always interdisciplinary. These paleontologists relied on geology, biology, ecology, and chemistry (to name a few) to come to their conclusions about B. markmitchelli. This is really important because people always think that science is very isolating and you only work on your own, when in actuality science is accomplished by a team of people who can support you and fill in knowledge gaps. Second, it is important to look into those flashy science articles that pop up on your newfeeds and on Twitter. Those articles are press releases to get you interested in the science that is being done on these fossils or rocks or bacteria. We scientists get excited about our work and want to share it with people-take the time to do so, get excited about nature, and keep reading!

Citation: Brown et al., An Exceptionally Preserved Three-Dimensional Armored Dinosaur Reveals Insights into Coloration and Cretaceous Predator-Prey Dynamics, Current Biology (2017), DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.071

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